ABGs_Discussion_STUDENT_COPY.docx - ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES...

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ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES Allen’s Test: Compensation: Acid-Base Homeostasis Hydrogen ion (H + ) Vital to life Expressed as pH Circulate in body in two forms o Volatile hydrogen of carbonic acid o Nonvolatile form of hydrogen and organic acids Smallest ionic particle and is very reactive Combines with alkali/bases or other negatively charged ions at low concentrations 1
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Even small change in H + concentration can alter enzyme functioning Disturbances in H + concentration may result in abnormalities of function in organs such as pulmonary, renal, or cardiac systems and processes as blood clotting and the metabolism of drugs Acids Are produced as end products of metabolism Compounds that form H + in solution. o Hydrochloric acid (HCL) give up H + when added to blood Strong acids hold their H + weakly, so the ion dissociates easily and can then act on other substances o Carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) is a volatile acid. It dissociates into carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O); the CO 2 is then eliminated through the lungs Lungs excrete 13,000 to 30,000 mEq/day of this volatile acid! Kidneys excrete 50 mEq/day Weak acids hold onto their H + more tightly so they do not contribute as much to the free hydrogen ion concentration (because of this, the solution will have a higher pH) Bases Contain no H + 2
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Are H + acceptors; accept from acids to neutralize or decrease the strength of a base or to form a weaker acid Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 - ) removes H + when added to the blood Buffers Primary Buffer System in Extracellular Fluid Hemoglobin o Maintains acid-base balance by process of chloride shift 3
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o Chloride leaves RBC, a bicarbonate ion enters and vice versa Plasma Protein System o Functions along with liver to vary amount of H + in the chemical structure of plasma proteins o Plasma proteins have ability to attract or release H + Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate buffer system Phosphate Buffer System 4
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