Theory.docx - Theory Literature Film Feminism First wave...

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Theory, Literature, Film Feminism First wave: 1950s, 60s, 70s Second wave: 1970s, 80s, 90s Third wave: 1990s onwards Liberal Women in the public sphere (work representation, legislation, equality, different from meant but equal) (What is the category women stand for?) Mary Wollstonecraf vindication of the rights of women (1792) Simone De Beauvoir The Second Sex (1949) , in which she writes: “one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman”- significance: moving away from gender essentialism. More based on experience, rather than being born into a specific gender Informs how one perceives gender Gloria Steinem “After Black Power, Women’s liberation’ (1969) Naomi Wolf ‘The beauty Myth (1990) -popular, consumer culture, beauty construct and how we perceive them. Body standards etc. We move from education to power, to beauty Socialist Critique on capitalism and patriarchy- together they produce gender oppression, inequality and differences between men and women Juliet Mitchell ‘Psychoanalysis and Feminism' (1974) Links both together, suggesting capitalism has an effect on an individuals psyche. Iris Young ‘Justice and the Politics of Difference’ (1990) Pragmatics of how to write women rights Marxist Capitalism causes women’s oppression. To liberate women, need to overthrow the capitalist class system Lise Vogel ‘Marxism and the Oppression of Women’ (1983) We are becoming more and more militant Radical Patriarchy is universal. Focus is on male dominance, sexual violence against women, harassment, objectification through pornography, prostitution. “Freedom achieved through physical separation from men” Andrew Dworkin ‘pornography: Men possessing women’ (1981) Catherine Mackinnon ‘Sexual harassment of working women: a. Case of sex discrimination’ (1979) Standpoint Explores commonalities of womanhood, experiences and conditions in society which informs feminist knowledge. Initially drew on Marxist feminism then towards postmodern feminist; embracing multiple realities and subjectivities for political agenda of feminism Donna Haraway ‘A cyborg Manifesto’ (1983) Seyla Benhabib ‘Critique, Norm and utopia. A study of the foundation of critical theory' (1986) Donna Haraway, “A cyborg Manifesto
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A cyborg is a cybernetic organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction. Social reality is lived social relations our most important political construction a world changing fiction. The international women’s movements have constructed women’s experiences as well as uncovered or discovered this crucial collective object. This experience is a fiction and fact of the most crucial political kind. Liberation rests on the construction of the consciousness the imaginative apprehension, of oppression and so of possibility. The cyborg is a matter of fiction and lived experience that changed what counts as women experience in the late twentieth century. Contemporary science fiction is full of cyborgs creatures
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