Ch 11 - Physiology - Immune System - s(1).pdf

Ch 11 - Physiology - Immune System - s(1).pdf - Chapter 11...

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Chapter 11 Immune System
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The Uncommonly Unpleasant Cold Cold Virus usually enters through the nasal membranes Many of the typical cold symptoms are not caused by the virus, but by our bodies immune reaction to the virus
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Disease Defense and Nonspecific Resistance Two types of resistance 1. Nonspecific Resistance Physical barriers Nonspecific substances Cellular activities 2. Specific resistance or immunity
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Disease Defense and Nonspecific Resistance First line of defense Skin One of the best protections against invaders forms a protective outer layer that most viruses and bacteria cannot penetrate. Mucous membranes Lining the digestive and respiratory tracts secrete mucus, a sticky fluid that traps particles. External barriers are your first line of defense against infections
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External barriers are your first line of defense against infections Hairs and cilia sweep particles outward until they can be expelled. Gastric juice kills most of the bacteria you swallow.
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Disease Defense and Nonspecific Resistance Second line of defense Interferons Antimicrobial proteins released by virus- infected cells Complement system 20 plasma proteins designed to destroy pathogens and cause inflammation This causes the bacteria cell to swell and eventually burst.
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Disease Defense and Nonspecific Resistance Second line of defense Natural killer cells These are a type of white blood cell that is appropriately named they kill infectious microbes Phagocytes Cell eaters literally eats pathogens and kill them with enzymes
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Disease Defense and Nonspecific Resistance Second line of defense Inflammation Many inflammation mediators are released when tissue is damaged Complement, prostaglandins and cytokines send signals to phagocytes to come and get the pathogen Inflammation mediators Act on mast cells located in the connective tissue Mast cells release histamine and heparin Histamine causes swollen membranes, nasal congestion, etc.
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