100%(4)4 out of 4 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 31 pages.
Chapter 40: Animal Bodies and HomeostasisOrganization of Animal BodiesAll animal cells share similarities in the ways in which they oExchange materials with their surroundingsoObtain energy from organic nutrientsoSynthesize complex moleculesoReproduce themselvesoDirectly respond to signals in their immediate environmentCellswith similar properties group to form tissuesTissues combine together to form organsoHas to have 2 or more types of tissue to be classified an organOrgans are linked to form organ systemsCells Tissues Organ Organ SystemA cell will commit to a specific type of function or job – differentiationVertebrate Tissues4 types of cells that form tissueoMuscle Tissue = most abundant tissue / unique to animals (allows animals to move)SkeletalMuscle– Attached to bone or exoskeleton, voluntary control, striated, multinucleatedStriation – molecules in muscle are organized in stripesUnder voluntary control – you decide if you move it or notSmoothMuscle – Surrounds tubes and cavities for propulsion of contents, involuntary control, not striatedLines most of your organs[Just know it exists and is different from skeletal and cardiac]CardiacMuscle – Only in the heart, involuntary control, striatedOne nucleus per cell. Intercalated disks – have holes in them so that one cell can communicate to the neighboring cell; communicate with electrical signal oNervous TissueConduct electrical signals from one part of the animal’s body to anotherAllows organisms to interact with their environment – required for animals to move … cant move without nervous systemSingle nerve cell called a neuron (functional unit of nervous system)– neurons have many different shapes; can be the length of your leg or giraffes neck [thin but long]Electrical signals produced in a nerve cell may stimulate or inhibit other cells toInitiate new action potentials in other neuronsStimulate muscle to contractStimulate glands to release chemicalsoEpithelial TissueWill protect surfaces and secrete/make chemicals
Organized by shape or stratification (or layers)Pseudostratified – false stratification Sheets of densely-packed cells that cover the body or enclose organs &line the walls of body cavitiesAll are asymmetricalor polarizedRest on basal lamina or basement membraneCan function as selective barriersCome in 3 forms: squamous (squashed), columnar (column), and cuboidalformsoConnective Tissue = most diverse tissueConnect, anchor, and supportIncludes blood,adipose,bone, cartilage,loose anddense connective tissue (ligaments and tendons)Forms a lot of extracellular matrix around cells to make it connective tissueProvides scaffold for attachmentProtects and cushionsMechanical strengthTransmit informationLike all animal cells, they have a cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, ER, GA, cytoskeletonBut connective tissue cells have lots of extracellularmatrix