Exam 4 Notes.docx - Chapter 40 Animal Bodies and Homeostasis Organization of Animal Bodies All animal cells share similarities in the ways in which they

Exam 4 Notes.docx - Chapter 40 Animal Bodies and...

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Chapter 40: Animal Bodies and Homeostasis Organization of Animal Bodies All animal cells share similarities in the ways in which they o Exchange materials with their surroundings o Obtain energy from organic nutrients o Synthesize complex molecules o Reproduce themselves o Directly respond to signals in their immediate environment Cells with similar properties group to form tissues Tissues combine together to form organs o Has to have 2 or more types of tissue to be classified an organ Organs are linked to form organ systems Cells Tissues Organ Organ System A cell will commit to a specific type of function or job – differentiation Vertebrate Tissues 4 types of cells that form tissue o Muscle Tissue = most abundant tissue / unique to animals (allows animals to move) Skeletal Muscle – Attached to bone or exoskeleton, voluntary control, striated, multinucleated Striation – molecules in muscle are organized in stripes Under voluntary control – you decide if you move it or not Smooth Muscle – Surrounds tubes and cavities for propulsion of contents, involuntary control, not striated Lines most of your organs [Just know it exists and is different from skeletal and cardiac] Cardiac Muscle – Only in the heart, involuntary control, striated One nucleus per cell. Intercalated disks – have holes in them so that one cell can communicate to the neighboring cell; communicate with electrical signal o Nervous Tissue Conduct electrical signals from one part of the animal’s body to another Allows organisms to interact with their environment – required for animals to move … cant move without nervous system Single nerve cell called a neuron (functional unit of nervous system) neurons have many different shapes; can be the length of your leg or giraffes neck [thin but long] Electrical signals produced in a nerve cell may stimulate or inhibit other cells to Initiate new action potentials in other neurons Stimulate muscle to contract Stimulate glands to release chemicals o Epithelial Tissue Will protect surfaces and secrete/make chemicals
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Organized by shape or stratification (or layers) Pseudostratified – false stratification Sheets of densely-packed cells that cover the body or enclose organs & line the walls of body cavities All are asymmetrical or polarized Rest on basal lamina or basement membrane Can function as selective barriers Come in 3 forms: squamous (squashed), columnar (column), and cuboidal forms o Connective Tissue = most diverse tissue Connect, anchor, and support Includes blood, adipose, bone , cartilage, loose and dense connective tissue (ligaments and tendons) Forms a lot of extracellular matrix around cells to make it connective tissue Provides scaffold for attachment Protects and cushions Mechanical strength Transmit information Like all animal cells, they have a cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, ER, GA, cytoskeleton But connective tissue cells have lots of extracellular matrix
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