Chapter 6 - acids - Chapter 6: Acid Rain Chapter...

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Chapter 6: Acid Rain Chapter Introduction h What is acid rain? h What harm does it do? h We don’t have acid rain here, so why should we solve other people’s problems? h If it’s so bad, why don’t we just get rid of it? h What technical solutions are being pursued? h What political solutions are being pursued? Chapter Introduction h What chemistry do I need to know in order to understand this problem? h What is an acid? h What precursors lead to acid rain? How is acid rain formed? h What is the pH scale and why is it convenient? h How can I neutralize the acid rain? H h How can the damage of acid rain be minimized? Context Concepts h Acidity across the US h Sources of SOx and NOx h Damage from acid rain h Effect on humans h Regulations h Proposed solutions h Clean Air Act Chemical Concepts h Acids h Bases h Neutralization Reactions h Molarity h pH (and logarithms) h Acid anhydrides h Combustion Reactions h Reaction Stoichiometry h Free Radicals h Corrosion h Nitrogen Cycle
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Nomenclature Acids and Bases h Historically, these were identified by using our senses. h Acids taste sour. (Think lemons.) h Bases taste bitter and feel slimy to the touch. (Think toilet bowl cleaner.) h But these definitions do not provide enough information for doing calculations. We need more. What is an Acid? h There are several definitions h For now, an acid is a substance that gives off H+ ions in aqueous solution. HCl h H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) HNO3 h H+(aq) + NO3- (aq) h Note: The H+ is highly reactive and so is sometimes written as H3O+, to show the proton attached to a water molecule. What is a Base? h There are several definitions h For now, a base is a substance that gives off OH- in aqueous solution. NaOH h Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) Sr(OH)2 h Sr2+(aq) + 2 OH- (aq) NH3 + H2O h NH4OH(aq) h NH4 +(aq) + OH-(aq) Memorize h Strong Acids h HCl h HBr h HI h HNO3 h HClO4 h HClO3 h H2SO4 h Strong Bases h “b” shape on periodic table h LiOH
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NaOH h KOH h RbOH h CsOH h Ca(OH)2 h Sr(OH)2 h Ba(OH)2 By memorizing the strong acids and bases, you will also know the weak ones! Reaction Type: Neutralization
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Chapter 6 - acids - Chapter 6: Acid Rain Chapter...

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