Lecture-1-Fall-2017.pdf - An historical perspective on...

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Gold, 6000 BCE Copper, 4200 BCE Silver, 4000 BCE Tin, 1750 BCE Lead, 3500 BCE Mercury, 750 BCE Iron, 1500 BCE These seven metals are known as the Metals of Antiquity , and were critical for the development of human civilization. Men know how to mine silver and refine gold, to dig iron from the earth and melt copper from stone (Job 28:1-2) An historical perspective on metals
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Elemental copper was the first source of the metal that humans used, for obvious reasons — it’s easy to find and doesn’t need much refining. If a big enough chunk was found, all you had to do was hammer it into whatever shape you needed.
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Great Orme
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These are the tunnels of a copper mine: one that was first dug out some 3,800 years ago and that, within a couple of centuries, was the largest in Britain.
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The Great Orme’s tunnels run for five miles beneath the surface.
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A typical copper ingot in the late Chalcolithic, meant for export.
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Some of the first recorded smelters were employed by the Sumerians, and they were no more than shallow pits in which ore was thrown over burning charcoal.
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1,984 °F 450 °F 1,675 °F The Bronze Age, ~ 3,000 BCE
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17 th Century BCE 17 th Century BCE
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Routes of Near Eastern tin trade; 1,950 – 1,850 BCE.
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Cassiterides = Tin Islands (Greek = Kassiteros) Cassiterite = SnO 2 Strabo’s map of Europe, circa 20 BCE “Stream Tin” Bronze hydria (water jar), mid-5th century B.C.; Classical, Greek, Bronze
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Cornwall, England
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13 th – 14 th Centuries
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