CHAPTER 7 notes.docx - Instructors Manual Introduction to...

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Instructor’s Manual - Introduction to Early Childhood Education, 6 th Ed. 1 CHAPTER 7: ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING FOCUS QUESTIONS What are the differences between assessment and testing? Why and how should young children be tested? What strategies can be used to assess young children? How can assessment data be effectively organized? What strategies can teachers use for reporting assessment data to parents and others? Why and how should the program be assessed? What are strategies for assessing children with special needs? How can teachers ensure that assessment is culturally sensitive? CHAPTER OUTLINE 1) Assessment is collecting and evaluating information about the performance of an individual, the quality of a program, or the effectiveness of an activity. A) Testing is one kind of assessment, but there are others. B) Assessment does not improve programs, but it highlights program strengths and weaknesses. C) Types of assessment: i. Formative assessment checks what children are learning and may be used on a daily basis to make adjustments in classroom strategies. ii. Summative assessment is used at the end of a teaching unit to evaluate learning. D) Types of testing i. Achievement (mastery over information) ii. Criterion-referenced (comparison with a standard) iii. Developmental (comparison with age-related norms)
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Instructor’s Manual - Introduction to Early Childhood Education, 6 th Ed. 2 iv. Norm-referenced (comparison with group norms) v. Readiness (preparedness for an experience) vi. Reliability (consistency of test scores) o The degree to which tests scores are consistent, dependable, or repeatable vii. Screening (identifying problems) viii. Standardized (empirically tested and normed) ix. Validity (accuracy of construct measurement) o The degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure 2) Testing young children A) Screening tests are routinely given to young children to assess their ability to learn or their knowledge in comparison to age norms. B) Readiness tests are intended to predict success in school. C) Standardized tests should be considered one of many ways to collect information about children. i. Tests may be misused if they lack reliability and validity. ii. Tests may indicate developmentally-inappropriate expectations for children.
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