History 5 IDs Final.pdf - History IDs Final The Industrial...

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Unformatted text preview: History​ ​IDs​ ​Final The​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution James​ ​Watt ● In​ ​1769,​ ​British​ ​inventor​ ​James​ ​Watt​ ​patented​ ​a​ ​more​ ​efficient​ ​version​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Newcomen steam​ ​engine,​ ​which​ ​required​ ​substantially​ ​less​ ​fuel. Ironbridge ● Bridge​ ​built​ ​out​ ​of​ ​iron​ ​in​ ​Shropshire,​ ​England​ ​in​ ​1781.​ ​Iron​ ​was​ ​the​ ​material​ ​of​ ​the Industrial​ ​Revolution,​ ​so​ ​this​ ​bridge​ ​aptly​ ​represented​ ​the​ ​revolution. Coke ● Fuel​ ​made​ ​from​ ​coal,​ ​which​ ​was​ ​an​ ​element​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution.​ ​Coke​ ​was​ ​used to​ ​fuel​ ​steam​ ​engines,​ ​which​ ​powered​ ​nearly​ ​everything​ ​that​ ​was​ ​developed​ ​during​ ​the Revolution,​ ​from​ ​factories​ ​to​ ​steamships. Manchester ● City​ ​of​ ​Industry​ ​built​ ​during​ ​the​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution.​ ​Exported​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​textiles,​ ​and looked​ ​like​ ​a​ ​stereotypical​ ​factory​ ​city. Thomas​ ​Malthus​ ​(1766-1834) ● English​ ​scholar,​ ​influential​ ​in​ ​political​ ​economy​ ​and​ ​demography.​ ​He​ ​observed​ ​that sooner​ ​or​ ​later​ ​famine​ ​or​ ​disease​ ​would​ ​strike​ ​a​ ​large​ ​population,​ ​resulting​ ​in​ ​a Malthusian​ ​catastrophe.​ ​Population​ ​growth​ ​is​ ​not​ ​a​ ​great​ ​thing,​ ​went​ ​against​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of progress. Luddites ● 19th-century​ ​English​ ​textile​ ​workers​ ​who​ ​protested​ ​against​ ​newly​ ​developed labour-economizing​ ​technologies.​ ​The​ ​stocking​ ​frames,​ ​spinning​ ​frames​ ​and​ ​power looms​ ​introduced​ ​during​ ​the​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution​ ​threatened​ ​to​ ​replace​ ​them​ ​with less-skilled,​ ​low-wage​ ​labourers,​ ​leaving​ ​them​ ​without​ ​work. Isambard​ ​Kingdom​ ​Brunel ● 19th​ ​century​ ​English​ ​engineer.​ ​Brunel​ ​built​ ​dockyards,​ ​the​ ​Great​ ​Western​ ​Railway,​ ​a series​ ​of​ ​steamships​ ​including​ ​the​ ​first​ ​propeller-driven​ ​transatlantic​ ​steamship​ ​and numerous​ ​important​ ​bridges​ ​and​ ​tunnels. Robert​ ​Owen ● 19th​ ​century​ ​Utopian​ ​Socialist;​ ​he​ ​bought​ ​textile​ ​mills​ ​in​ ​Scotland​ ​and​ ​proved​ ​that successful​ ​industrial​ ​capitalism​ ​did​ ​not​ ​require​ ​the​ ​exploitation​ ​of​ ​labor​ ​(he​ ​increased​ ​his workers’​ ​wages​ ​and​ ​reduced​ ​their​ ​hours,​ ​etc.) Class​ ​and​ ​Gender Liberalism ● Political​ ​movement​ ​that​ ​supports​ ​a​ ​broad​ ​tradition​ ​of​ ​individual​ ​liberties​ ​and constitutionally-limited​ ​and​ ​democratically​ ​accountable​ ​government.​ ​Stems​ ​from​ ​the Enlightenment,​ ​specifically​ ​utilitarianism,​ ​which​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​replace​ ​traditional​ ​questions​ ​of what​ ​is​ ​right​ ​with​ ​what​ ​is​ ​useful. Scientific​ ​Socialism ● A​ ​method​ ​for​ ​understanding​ ​and​ ​predicting​ ​social,​ ​economic,​ ​and​ ​material​ ​phenomena​ ​by examining​ ​their​ ​historical​ ​trends​ ​through​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​the​ ​scientific​ ​method​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​derive probable​ ​outcomes​ ​and​ ​probable ​future​ ​developments.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​precisely​ ​what​ ​Marx​ ​did​ ​in​ ​the Communist​ ​Manifesto,​ ​he​ ​saw​ ​that​ ​every​ ​class​ ​that​ ​gains​ ​power​ ​becomes​ ​abusive/corrupt. Historical​ ​Materialism ● A​ ​theory​ ​of​ ​history​ ​according​ ​to​ ​which​ ​the​ ​material​ ​conditions​ ​of​ ​a​ ​society's​ ​mode​ ​of production​ ​(its​ ​way​ ​of​ ​producing​ ​and​ ​reproducing​ ​the​ ​means​ ​of​ ​human​ ​existence​ ​-​ ​in​ ​Marxist terms,​ ​the​ ​union​ ​of​ ​its​ ​productive​ ​capacity​ ​and​ ​social​ ​relations​ ​of​ ​production)​ ​fundamentally determine​ ​its​ ​organization​ ​and​ ​development. Karl​ ​Marx ● Influential​ ​19th​ ​century​ ​socialist​ ​thinker.​ ​Writer​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Communist​ ​Manifesto,​ ​which​ ​proved​ ​to be​ ​incredibly​ ​influential​ ​for​ ​a​ ​number​ ​of​ ​countries​ ​in​ ​the​ ​future.​ ​In​ ​it,​ ​he​ ​used​ ​Scientific Socialism​ ​to​ ​predict/instruct​ ​the​ ​proletariat​ ​(working​ ​class​ ​composed​ ​of​ ​industrial​ ​workers) rising​ ​up​ ​against​ ​the​ ​oppressive​ ​bourgeoisie​ ​and​ ​establishing​ ​a​ ​society​ ​with​ ​only​ ​one​ ​class, no​ ​exploitation​ ​of​ ​one​ ​class​ ​by​ ​another,​ ​no​ ​class​ ​conflict,​ ​and​ ​harmony​ ​would​ ​prevail. Separation​ ​of​ ​Spheres ● Men​ ​inhabit​ ​the​ ​public​ ​sphere​ ​–​ ​the​ ​world​ ​of​ ​politics,​ ​economy,​ ​commerce,​ ​and​ ​law.​ ​Women inhabited​ ​the​ ​private​ ​sphere​ ​of​ ​domestic​ ​life,​ ​child-rearing,​ ​housekeeping,​ ​and​ ​religious education Suffrage​ ​Question ● Should​ ​women​ ​be​ ​allowed​ ​to​ ​vote? Social​ ​Question ● How​ ​can​ ​we​ ​truly​ ​achieve​ ​equality?​ ​What​ ​should​ ​we​ ​do​ ​about​ ​the​ ​misery​ ​of​ ​the​ ​laboring class? Age​ ​of​ ​isms ● In​ ​the​ ​nineteenth​ ​century,​ ​new​ ​ways​ ​came​ ​about​ ​for​ ​thinking​ ​about​ ​experienes.​ ​Social sciences​ ​are​ ​studied​ ​so​ ​people​ ​can​ ​improve​ ​society.​ ​Many​ ​isms​ ​emerged.​ ​Ism-​ ​a​ ​system​ ​of ideas​ ​tied​ ​to​ ​some​ ​greater​ ​social,​ ​political,​ ​or​ ​artistic​ ​end.​ ​Liberalism,​ ​socialism,​ ​feminism, etc. Revolution​ ​and​ ​Reform Great​ ​Reform​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​1932 ● The​ ​Great​ ​Reform​ ​Act​ ​of​ ​1932​ ​redistributed​ ​seats​ ​in​ ​the​ ​House​ ​of​ ​Commons​ ​from​ ​rotten​ ​and pocket​ ​boroughs​ ​to​ ​underrepresented​ ​boroughs.​ ​It​ ​also​ ​extended​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​vote​ ​to middle-class​ ​men. Chartism ● 19th​ ​century​ ​working​ ​class​ ​reform​ ​in​ ​Britain.​ ​Chartists​ ​drew​ ​up​ ​a​ ​People’s​ ​charter,​ ​which begged​ ​Universal​ ​manhood​ ​suffrage,​ ​secret​ ​ballots,​ ​abolition​ ​of​ ​property​ ​requirements​ ​to vote,​ ​etc. February​ ​Revolution ● French​ ​monarch​ ​King​ ​Louis​ ​Philippe​ ​attempted​ ​to​ ​prohibit​ ​a​ ​banquet​ ​that​ ​was​ ​scheduled​ ​to be​ ​held​ ​in​ ​Paris​ ​by​ ​middle-class​ ​opponents.​ ​When​ ​he​ ​did​ ​this​ ​rioting​ ​broke​ ​out​ ​in​ ​the​ ​streets. June​ ​Days ● In​ ​Paris,​ ​workers​ ​responded​ ​to​ ​the​ ​closing​ ​of​ ​the​ ​national​ ​workshops​ ​(which​ ​were​ ​designed to​ ​provide​ ​assistance​ ​to​ ​unemployed​ ​workers). Free​ ​trade ● Policy​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​some​ ​international​ ​markets​ ​in​ ​which​ ​countries'​ ​governments​ ​do​ ​not​ ​restrict imports​ ​from,​ ​or​ ​exports​ ​to,​ ​other​ ​countries. Louis​ ​Philippe ● “Citizen​ ​King”​ ​who​ ​was​ ​the​ ​monarch​ ​in​ ​a​ ​constitutional​ ​monarchy​ ​after​ ​the​ ​revolt​ ​against Charles​ ​X.​ ​Not​ ​a​ ​bourbon;​ ​rather,​ ​he​ ​had​ ​carefully​ ​cultivated​ ​a​ ​bourgeois​ ​image. Louis​ ​Napoleon​ ​Bonaparte ● Nephew​ ​of​ ​Napoleon;​ ​won​ ​the​ ​French​ ​presidency​ ​in​ ​1848​ ​due​ ​to​ ​his​ ​name,​ ​which​ ​stood​ ​for order​ ​and​ ​national​ ​glory.​ ​Desired​ ​to​ ​establish​ ​a​ ​dictatorship.​ ​Two-faced​ ​politician,​ ​who​ ​made peace​ ​with​ ​Austria​ ​and​ ​Italy,​ ​who​ ​were​ ​at​ ​war​ ​with​ ​each​ ​other. Alexander​ ​II ● 19th​ ​century​ ​Russian​ ​tsar​ ​who​ ​extricated​ ​Russia​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Crimean​ ​War​ ​and​ ​issued​ ​the Emancipation​ ​Edict​ ​of​ ​1861,​ ​which​ ​abolished​ ​serfdom​ ​in​ ​Russia.​ ​He​ ​also​ ​enacted​ ​legal, judicial,​ ​and​ ​military​ ​reforms. Crimean​ ​War​ ​(1853-1856) ● War​ ​that​ ​erupted​ ​out​ ​of​ ​tensions​ ​between​ ​Russia​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Ottoman​ ​empire.​ ​Soon​ ​Great Britain​ ​and​ ​France​ ​declared​ ​war​ ​on​ ​Russia​ ​to​ ​block​ ​any​ ​further​ ​expansion​ ​of​ ​Russian​ ​power and​ ​to​ ​prevent​ ​the​ ​Russians​ ​from​ ​getting​ ​control​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Turkish​ ​Straits. Paris​ ​Commune ● Conservative,​ ​monarchist​ ​candidates​ ​won​ ​a​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​seats​ ​in​ ​the​ ​new​ ​National​ ​Assembly. When​ ​the​ ​French​ ​government​ ​ordered​ ​the​ ​dissolution​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Paris​ ​National​ ​Guard,​ ​the radicals​ ​in​ ​the​ ​city​ ​elected​ ​a​ ​new​ ​city​ ​government,​ ​the​ ​Paris​ ​Commune​ ​(which​ ​was​ ​soon crushed​ ​and​ ​20,000​ ​lives​ ​were​ ​lost). Nationalism ● An​ ​ideology​ ​in​ ​which​ ​people​ ​acquire​ ​a​ ​greater​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​peoplehood​ ​and​ ​community​ ​through an​ ​appreciation​ ​of​ ​their​ ​language,​ ​literature,​ ​and​ ​history​ ​(which​ ​would​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​them​ ​wanting​ ​a state​ ​of​ ​their​ ​own).​ ​Nationalism​ ​was​ ​used​ ​to​ ​unite​ ​Italy​ ​and​ ​Germany​ ​in​ ​the​ ​19th​ ​century. Science,​ ​Medicine,​ ​and​ ​Religion Charles​ ​Darwin​ ​(1809-1882) ● Father​ ​of​ ​evolution.​ ​Wrote​ ​in​ ​On​ ​the​ ​Origin​ ​of​ ​Species​ ​that​ ​creationism​ ​was​ ​wrong,​ ​and​ ​that life​ ​involves​ ​a​ ​constant​ ​struggle​ ​for​ ​existence,​ ​in​ ​which,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​result​ ​of​ ​a​ ​process​ ​of​ ​natural selection,​ ​the​ ​fittest​ ​survive. Syllabus​ ​of​ ​Errors​ ​(1864) ● It​ ​listed​ ​the​ ​church's​ ​position​ ​in​ a​ ​number​ ​of​ ​both​ ​philosophical​ ​and​ ​political​ ​areas​ ​(issued​ ​by Pius​ ​IX),​ ​and​ ​was​ ​widely​ ​interpreted​ ​as​ ​an​ ​attack​ ​by​ ​the​ ​church​ ​on​ ​modernism,​ ​secularization and​ ​the​ ​political​ ​emancipation​ ​of​ ​Europe​ ​from​ ​the​ ​tradition​ ​of​ ​Catholic​ ​Monarchies. “Higher​ ​criticism” ● A​ ​branch​ ​of​ ​literary​ ​criticism​ ​that​ ​investigates​ ​the​ ​origins​ ​of​ ​ancient​ ​text​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to understand​ ​"the​ ​world​ ​behind​ ​the​ ​text.”​ ​i.e.​ ​get​ ​some​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​historical​ ​context​ ​by​ ​reading literature. eugenics ● Set​ ​of​ ​beliefs​ ​and​ ​practices​ ​which​ ​aims​ ​at​ ​improving​ ​the​ ​genetic​ ​quality​ ​of​ ​the​ ​human population.​ ​Idea​ ​spread​ ​through​ ​Europe​ ​at​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​20th​ ​century,​ ​and​ ​had positive​ ​(encouraging​ ​healthy​ ​people​ ​to​ ​marry/reproduce)​ ​and​ ​negative​ ​(sterilizing​ ​those deemed​ ​unfit​ ​to​ ​pass​ ​genes)​ ​effects. Social​ ​Darwinism ● A​ ​series​ ​of​ ​beliefs​ ​that​ ​spread​ ​in​ ​the​ ​1870s​ ​which​ ​claim​ ​to​ ​apply​ ​biological​ ​concepts​ ​of natural​ ​selection​ ​and​ ​survival​ ​of​ ​the​ ​fittest​ ​to​ ​sociology​ ​and​ ​politics.​ ​Economically,​ ​social Darwinists​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​the​ ​strong​ ​should​ ​see​ ​their​ ​wealth​ ​and​ ​power​ ​increase​ ​while​ ​the​ ​weak should​ ​see​ ​their​ ​wealth​ ​and​ ​power​ ​decrease. Making​ ​States,​ ​Crafting​ ​Nations “risorgimento” ● The​ ​political​ ​and​ ​social​ ​movement​ ​that​ ​consolidated​ ​different​ ​states​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Italian​ ​peninsula into​ ​the​ ​single​ ​state​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Kingdom​ ​of​ ​Italy​ ​in​ ​the​ ​19th​ ​century. Camilo​ ​Benso,​ ​Count​ ​of​ ​Cavour ● The​ ​unifier​ ​of​ ​Italy,​ ​who​ ​proved​ ​to​ ​be​ ​one​ ​of​ ​Europe’s​ ​most​ ​brilliant​ ​statesmen​ ​in​ ​the nineteenth​ ​century.​ ​Became​ ​the​ ​Premier​ ​of​ ​Piedmont​ ​and​ ​carried​ ​out​ ​a​ ​program​ ​of​ ​liberal reform.​ ​He​ ​used​ ​careful​ ​political​ ​plays​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​territory​ ​throughout​ ​Italy. Italian​ ​Unification ● In​ ​1861,​ ​an​ ​Italian​ ​parliament​ ​proclaimed​ ​the​ ​establishment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​kingdom​ ​of​ ​Italy.​ ​Nine years,​ ​later​ ​Italy​ ​annexed​ ​Venetia​ ​and​ ​Rome​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Austrians​ ​and​ ​completed​ ​the​ ​process of​ ​unification​ ​and​ ​marked​ ​the​ ​fulfillment​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Risorgimento,​ ​the​ ​great​ ​political​ ​and​ ​cultural revival​ ​of​ ​Italy​ ​during​ ​the​ ​19th​ ​century. Giuseppe​ ​Garibaldi​ ​(1807-1882) ● Italian​ ​nationalist​ ​who​ ​led​ ​repeated​ ​unsuccessful​ ​revolts​ ​against​ ​the​ ​tyranny​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Austrians and​ ​the​ ​Italian​ ​princes.​ ​He​ ​led​ ​the​ ​Red​ ​Shirts,​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​volunteer​ ​sailors,​ ​in​ ​capturing Palermo,​ ​Sicily’s​ ​major​ ​city,​ ​and​ ​Naples. Victor​ ​Emmanuel​ ​III​ ​(1869-1947) ● Italian​ King;​ ​during​ ​his​ ​long​ ​reign​ ​(45​ ​years),​ ​the​ ​Kingdom​ ​of​ ​Italy​ ​became​ ​involved​ ​in​ ​two World​ ​Wars.​ ​His​ ​reign​ ​also​ ​encompassed​ ​the​ ​birth,​ ​rise,​ ​and​ ​fall​ ​of​ ​Italian​ ​Fascism. Otto​ ​Von​ ​Bismarck​ ​(1815-1898) ● a​ ​conservative​ ​Prussian​ ​statesman​ ​who​ ​dominated​ ​German​ ​and​ ​European​ ​affairs.​ ​In​ ​the 1860s​ ​he​ ​engineered​ ​a​ ​series​ ​of​ ​wars​ ​that​ ​unified​ ​the​ ​German​ ​states​ ​(excluding​ ​Austria)​ ​into a​ ​powerful​ ​German​ ​Empire​ ​under​ ​Prussian​ ​leadership.​ ​With​ ​that​ ​accomplished​ ​by​ ​1871​ ​he skillfully​ ​used​ ​balance​ ​of​ ​power​ ​diplomacy​ ​to​ ​preserve​ ​German​ ​hegemony​ ​in​ ​a​ ​Europe which,​ ​despite​ ​many​ ​disputes​ ​and​ ​war​ ​scares,​ ​remained​ ​at​ ​peace. “the​ ​nation​ ​is​ ​a​ ​daily​ ​plebiscite” ● In​ ​an​ ​1882​ ​lecture​ ​by​ ​French​ ​historian​ ​Ernest​ ​Renan,​ ​known​ ​for​ ​the​ ​statements​ ​that​ ​a​ ​nation is​ ​"a​ ​daily​ ​plebiscite​ ​(or​ ​referendum)",​ ​and​ ​that​ ​nations​ ​are​ ​based​ ​as​ ​much​ ​on​ ​what​ ​the people​ ​jointly​ ​forget,​ ​as​ ​what​ ​they​ ​remember. “Blood​ ​and​ ​iron” ● Although​ ​Bismarck​ ​was​ ​an​ ​outstanding​ ​diplomat,​ ​the​ ​phrase​ ​"blood​ ​and​ ​iron"​ ​has​ ​become​ ​a popular​ ​description​ ​of​ ​his​ ​foreign​ ​policy​ ​partly​ ​because​ ​he​ ​did​ ​on​ ​occasion​ ​resort​ ​to​ ​war​ ​to further​ ​the​ ​unification​ ​of​ ​Germany​ ​and​ ​the​ ​expansion​ ​of​ ​its​ ​continental​ ​power. Austro-Prussian​ ​War ● Aka​ ​the​ ​Seven​ ​Weeks’​ ​War.​ ​Prussians​ ​win,​ ​defeat​ ​Austria.​ ​Austria​ ​is​ ​then​ ​excluded​ ​from Germany,​ ​effectively​ ​ending​ ​its​ ​reign​ ​as​ ​an​ ​effective​ ​German​ ​power. Franco-Prussian​ ​War​ ​(1871) ● All​ ​of​ ​Germany,​ ​now​ ​under​ ​the​ ​leadership​ ​of​ ​Prussia,​ ​went​ ​to​ ​war​ ​against​ ​France,​ ​the Germans’​ ​hereditary​ ​enemy.​ ​Napoleon​ ​III​ ​surrendered​ ​to​ ​German​ ​forces.​ ​King​ ​William​ ​I​ ​of Prussia​ ​was​ ​proclaimed​ ​German​ ​emperor​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Hall​ ​of​ ​Mirrors​ ​at​ ​Versailles.​ ​Unification​ ​of Germany​ ​under​ ​the​ ​leadership​ ​of​ ​Prussia​ ​had​ ​been​ ​completed.​ ​Germany​ ​was​ ​now​ ​the​ ​most powerful​ ​state​ ​on​ ​the​ ​continent. Lecture​ ​19: Second​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution​ ​(1870-1914) ● Advancements​ ​in​ ​manufacturing​ ​and​ ​production​ ​technology​ ​enabled​ ​the​ ​widespread adoption​ ​of​ ​systems​ ​like​ ​telegraph​ ​and​ ​railroad​ ​networks,​ ​gas​ ​and​ ​water​ ​supply,​ ​and​ ​sewage systems.​ ​The​ ​enormous​ ​expansion​ ​of​ ​rail​ ​and​ ​telegraph​ ​lines​ ​after​ ​1870​ ​allowed unprecedented​ ​movement​ ​of​ ​people​ ​and​ ​ideas,​ ​which​ ​culminated​ ​in​ ​a​ ​new​ ​wave​ ​of globalization.​ ​Urbanization​ ​happened​ ​too,​ ​with​ ​the​ ​rise​ ​of​ ​the​ ​city​ ​and​ ​the​ ​crowding​ ​of​ ​urban factories. Second​ ​Communist​ ​International​ ​??? Dreyfus​ ​Affair​ ​(1894-1906) ● A​ ​political​ ​scandal​ ​that​ ​divided​ ​France;​ ​it​ ​was​ ​a​ ​striking​ ​example​ ​of​ ​a​ ​miscarriage​ ​of​ ​justice, where​ ​a​ ​major​ ​role​ ​was​ ​played​ ​by​ ​the​ ​press​ ​and​ ​public​ ​opinion.​ ​In​ ​it,​ ​Jewish​ ​Colonel​ ​Dreyfus was​ ​charged​ ​with​ ​being​ ​a​ ​spy.​ ​Dreyfus​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Jew​ ​was​ ​quickly​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​symbols​ ​of​ ​the revolution,​ ​and​ ​Jewish​ ​citizenship​ ​represented​ ​liberalism​ ​in​ ​a​ ​negative​ ​way.​ ​Conservatives reacted,​ ​blaming​ ​liberalism​ ​and​ ​gaining​ ​a​ ​foothold​ ​on​ ​the​ ​political​ ​playing​ ​field​ ​for​ ​the​ ​next years​ ​to​ ​come.​ ​Dreyfus​ ​was​ ​innocent​ ​but​ ​found​ ​guilty. Lecture​ ​20: Indian​ ​Mutiny​ ​(1857) ● Due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​British-run​ ​East​ ​India​ ​Company​ ​using​ ​cow​ ​and​ ​pork​ ​fat​ ​to​ ​lubricate​ ​Edelman​ ​rifles (which​ ​infringes​ ​upon​ ​Hindu​ ​principles),​ ​a​ ​group​ ​of​ ​Indians​ ​revolted​ ​against​ ​the​ ​British. Britain​ ​suppresses​ ​the​ ​revolt,​ ​but​ ​it​ ​was​ ​seen​ ​by​ ​many​ ​as​ ​the​ ​first​ ​step​ ​towards independence​ ​(or​ ​at​ ​least​ ​it​ ​showed​ ​how​ ​unpopular​ ​the​ ​Brits​ ​were​ ​in​ ​India.​ ​It​ ​also​ ​led​ ​the British​ ​to​ ​reorganise​ ​the​ ​army,​ ​the​ ​financial​ ​system​ ​and​ ​the​ ​administration​ ​in​ ​India Berlin​ ​Conference​ ​(1884-5) ● Aka​ ​“Congo​ ​Conference.”​ ​King​ ​of​ ​Belgium​ ​founded​ ​a​ ​company​ ​to​ ​exploit​ ​the​ ​rubber​ ​and​ ​gold resources​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Congo.​ ​Europeans​ ​were​ ​afraid​ ​that​ ​the​ ​king​ ​could​ ​claim​ ​such​ ​an​ ​area​ ​for himself.​ ​Agreed​ ​that​ ​territory​ ​in​ ​Africa​ ​had​ ​to​ ​be​ ​divided​ ​among​ ​the​ ​powers​ ​of​ ​Europe, leading​ ​to​ ​a​ ​scramble​ ​for​ ​Africa,​ ​since​ ​everybody​ ​wanted​ ​a​ ​piece.​ ​Imperialism​ ​at​ ​its​ ​finest. George​ ​Washington​ ​Williams(1849-1891) ● Travelled​ ​to​ ​King​ ​Leopold​ ​II's​ ​Congo​ ​Free​ ​State.​ ​Shocked​ ​by​ ​what​ ​he​ ​saw,​ ​he​ ​wrote​ ​an​ ​open letter​ ​to​ ​Leopold​ ​about​ ​the​ ​suffering​ ​of​ ​the​ ​region's​ ​inhabitants​ ​at​ ​the​ ​hands​ ​of​ ​Leopold's agents,​ ​which​ ​spurred​ ​the​ ​first​ ​public​ ​outcry​ ​against​ ​the​ ​regime​ ​running​ ​the​ ​Congo​ ​under which​ ​millions​ ​lost​ ​their​ ​lives. Lecture​ ​21: Article​ ​231​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Versailles​ ​(1919) ● Aka​ ​the​ ​“War​ ​Guilt​ ​Clause,”​ ​was​ ​the​ ​opening​ ​article​ ​of​ ​the​ ​reparations​ ​section​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Treaty of​ ​Versailles,​ ​which​ ​ended​ ​the​ ​First​ ​World​ ​War​ ​between​ ​the​ ​German​ ​Empire​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Allied and​ ​Associated​ ​Powers.​ ​The​ ​article​ ​did​ ​not​ ​use​ ​the​ ​word​ ​"guilt"​ ​but​ ​it​ ​served​ ​as​ ​a​ ​legal​ ​basis to​ ​compel​ ​Germany​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​reparations.​ ​Germans​ ​viewed​ ​this​ ​clause​ ​as​ ​a​ ​national humiliation,​ ​causing​ ​anger​ ​and​ ​resentment​ ​among​ ​the​ ​Germans,​ ​and​ ​forcing​ ​Germany​ ​to accept​ ​full​ ​responsibility​ ​for​ ​causing​ ​the​ ​war. Revanchism​ ​and​ ​Irredentism​ ​(pertaining​ ​to​ ​WWI) ● Revanchism​ ​and​ ​Irredentism​ ​both​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​a​ ​political​ ​or​ ​popular​ ​movement​ ​intended​ ​to reclaim​ ​and​ ​reoccupy​ ​a​ ​lost​ ​homeland.​ ​After​ ​WWI,​ ​Germany​ ​lost​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​land​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of Versailles,​ ​which​ ​left​ ​Germans​ ​feeling​ ​robbed​ ​and​ ​angry​ ​(eventually​ ​sparking​ ​WWII). Treaty​ ​of​ ​Brest-Litovsk​ ​(1918) ● Treaty​ ​between​ ​Soviet​ ​Russia​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Central​ ​Powers​ ​during​ ​WWI​ ​which​ ​ended​ ​Russia’s involvement​ ​in​ ​the​ ​war.​ ​The​ ​treaty​ ​made​ ​Russia​ ​give​ ​up​ ​any​ ​association​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Triple Entente,​ ​give​ ​up​ ​territory​ ​(like​ ​the​ ​Baltic​ ​states),​ ​and​ ​pay​ ​heavy​ ​reparations.​ ​Had​ ​lasting effects​ ​on​ ​Russia;​ ​people​ ​distrusted​ ​the​ ​Bolshevik​ ​govt.​ ​that​ ​signed​ ​this​ ​treaty​ ​because​ ​of​ ​its harsh​ ​reparations​ ​->​ ​civil​ ​war​ ​continued​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Bolshevik​ ​power​ ​was​ ​threatened. Lecture​ ​22: Leon​ ​Trotsky​ ​(1879-1940) ● Marxist​ ​revolutionary​ ​and​ ​theorist,​ ​Soviet​ ​politician,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​founding​ ​leader​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Red​ ​Army. Struggled​ ​with​ ​Stalin​ ​for​ ​power​ ​as​ ​Lenin​ ​died.​ ​He​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​a​ ​world​ ​revolution​ ​was necessary​ ​for​ ​the​ ​survival​ ​of​ ​soviet​ ​Russia’s​ ​socialist​ ​party,​ ​while​ ​Stalin​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​the Soviet​ ​Union​ ​could​ ​survive​ ​without​ ​it.​ ​Eventually,​ ​Stalin​ ​won​ ​and​ ​expelled​ ​Trotsky​ ​from​ ​the country,​ ​letting​ ​Stalin​ ​establish​ ​his​ ​dictatorial​ ​control,​ ​leading​ ​to​ ​Stalin’s​ ​stuff:​ ​eliminate capitalism,​ ​collectivize​ ​agriculture,​ ​industrialize,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Great​ ​Purge,​ ​which​ ​killed​ ​all​ ​who opposed. October​ ​1917 ● A​ ​seizure​ ​of​ ​state​ ​power​ ​instrumental​ ​in​ ​the​ ​larger​ ​Russian​ ​Revolution​ ​of​ ​1917.​ ​It​ ​took​ ​place with​ ​an​ ​armed​ ​insurrection​ ​in​ ​Petrograd.​ ​This​ ​was​ ​when​ ​the​ ​Bolsheviks​ ​took​ ​control​ ​of​ ​the government,​ ​and​ ​overthrew​ ​the​ ​Provisional​ ​Government.​ ​Really​ ​the​ ​turning​ ​point​ ​in​ ​the Russian​ ​Revolution,​ ​when​ ​Lenin​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Bolsheviks​ ​take​ ​power. Emancipation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Serfs​ ​(1861) ● Tsar​ ​Alexander​ ​II​ ​abolished​ ​serfdom,​ ​letting​ ​serfs​ ​acquire​ ​freedom​ ​and​ ​land.​ ​However,​ ​the peasants​ ​were​ ​required​ ​to​ ​reimburse​ ​the​ ​state​ ​in​ ​redemption​ ​dues​ ​extending​ ​over​ ​a​ ​period​ ​of forty-nine​ ​years,​ ​so​ ​they​ ​were​ ​not​ ​much​ ​better​ ​off​ ​than​ ​before,​ ​so ​peasant​ ​discontent​ ​and unrest​ ​continued. Lecture​ ​23: 30,​ ​January​ ​1...
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