Unformatted text preview: History IDs Final
The Industrial Revolution
● In 1769, British inventor James Watt patented a more efficient version of the Newcomen
steam engine, which required substantially less fuel.
● Bridge built out of iron in Shropshire, England in 1781. Iron was the material of the
Industrial Revolution, so this bridge aptly represented the revolution.
● Fuel made from coal, which was an element of the Industrial Revolution. Coke was used
to fuel steam engines, which powered nearly everything that was developed during the
Revolution, from factories to steamships.
● City of Industry built during the Industrial Revolution. Exported a lot of textiles, and
looked like a stereotypical factory city.
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
● English scholar, influential in political economy and demography. He observed that
sooner or later famine or disease would strike a large population, resulting in a
Malthusian catastrophe. Population growth is not a great thing, went against the idea of
● 19th-century English textile workers who protested against newly developed
labour-economizing technologies. The stocking frames, spinning frames and power
looms introduced during the Industrial Revolution threatened to replace them with
less-skilled, low-wage labourers, leaving them without work.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
● 19th century English engineer. Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a
series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship and
numerous important bridges and tunnels.
● 19th century Utopian Socialist; he bought textile mills in Scotland and proved that
successful industrial capitalism did not require the exploitation of labor (he increased his
workers’ wages and reduced their hours, etc.)
Class and Gender
● Political movement that supports a broad tradition of individual liberties and
constitutionally-limited and democratically accountable government. Stems from the Enlightenment, specifically utilitarianism, which seeks to replace traditional questions of
what is right with what is useful.
● A method for understanding and predicting social, economic, and material phenomena by
examining their historical trends through the use of the scientific method in order to derive
probable outcomes and probable future developments. This is precisely what Marx did in the
Communist Manifesto, he saw that every class that gains power becomes abusive/corrupt.
● A theory of history according to which the material conditions of a society's mode of
production (its way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence - in Marxist
terms, the union of its productive capacity and social relations of production) fundamentally
determine its organization and development.
● Influential 19th century socialist thinker. Writer of the Communist Manifesto, which proved to
be incredibly influential for a number of countries in the future. In it, he used Scientific
Socialism to predict/instruct the proletariat (working class composed of industrial workers)
rising up against the oppressive bourgeoisie and establishing a society with only one class,
no exploitation of one class by another, no class conflict, and harmony would prevail.
Separation of Spheres
● Men inhabit the public sphere – the world of politics, economy, commerce, and law. Women
inhabited the private sphere of domestic life, child-rearing, housekeeping, and religious
● Should women be allowed to vote?
● How can we truly achieve equality? What should we do about the misery of the laboring
Age of isms
● In the nineteenth century, new ways came about for thinking about experienes. Social
sciences are studied so people can improve society. Many isms emerged. Ism- a system of
ideas tied to some greater social, political, or artistic end. Liberalism, socialism, feminism,
Revolution and Reform
Great Reform Act of 1932
● The Great Reform Act of 1932 redistributed seats in the House of Commons from rotten and
pocket boroughs to underrepresented boroughs. It also extended the right to vote to
Chartism ● 19th century working class reform in Britain. Chartists drew up a People’s charter, which
begged Universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, abolition of property requirements to
vote, etc. February Revolution
● French monarch King Louis Philippe attempted to prohibit a banquet that was scheduled to
be held in Paris by middle-class opponents. When he did this rioting broke out in the streets.
● In Paris, workers responded to the closing of the national workshops (which were designed
to provide assistance to unemployed workers).
● Policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict
imports from, or exports to, other countries.
● “Citizen King” who was the monarch in a constitutional monarchy after the revolt against
Charles X. Not a bourbon; rather, he had carefully cultivated a bourgeois image.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
● Nephew of Napoleon; won the French presidency in 1848 due to his name, which stood for
order and national glory. Desired to establish a dictatorship. Two-faced politician, who made
peace with Austria and Italy, who were at war with each other.
● 19th century Russian tsar who extricated Russia from the Crimean War and issued the
Emancipation Edict of 1861, which abolished serfdom in Russia. He also enacted legal,
judicial, and military reforms.
Crimean War (1853-1856)
● War that erupted out of tensions between Russia and the Ottoman empire. Soon Great
Britain and France declared war on Russia to block any further expansion of Russian power
and to prevent the Russians from getting control of the Turkish Straits.
● Conservative, monarchist candidates won a majority of seats in the new National Assembly.
When the French government ordered the dissolution of the Paris National Guard, the
radicals in the city elected a new city government, the Paris Commune (which was soon
crushed and 20,000 lives were lost).
● An ideology in which people acquire a greater sense of peoplehood and community through
an appreciation of their language, literature, and history (which would lead to them wanting a
state of their own). Nationalism was used to unite Italy and Germany in the 19th century.
Science, Medicine, and Religion
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) ● Father of evolution. Wrote in On the Origin of Species that creationism was wrong, and that
life involves a constant struggle for existence, in which, as a result of a process of natural
selection, the fittest survive. Syllabus of Errors (1864)
● It listed the church's position in a number of both philosophical and political areas (issued by
Pius IX), and was widely interpreted as an attack by the church on modernism, secularization
and the political emancipation of Europe from the tradition of Catholic Monarchies.
● A branch of literary criticism that investigates the origins of ancient text in order to
understand "the world behind the text.” i.e. get some kind of historical context by reading
● Set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human
population. Idea spread through Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, and had
positive (encouraging healthy people to marry/reproduce) and negative (sterilizing those
deemed unfit to pass genes) effects.
● A series of beliefs that spread in the 1870s which claim to apply biological concepts of
natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics. Economically, social
Darwinists argue that the strong should see their wealth and power increase while the weak
should see their wealth and power decrease.
Making States, Crafting Nations
● The political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula
into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Camilo Benso, Count of Cavour
● The unifier of Italy, who proved to be one of Europe’s most brilliant statesmen in the
nineteenth century. Became the Premier of Piedmont and carried out a program of liberal
reform. He used careful political plays to gain territory throughout Italy.
● In 1861, an Italian parliament proclaimed the establishment of the kingdom of Italy. Nine
years, later Italy annexed Venetia and Rome from the Austrians and completed the process
of unification and marked the fulfillment of the Risorgimento, the great political and cultural
revival of Italy during the 19th century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
● Italian nationalist who led repeated unsuccessful revolts against the tyranny of the Austrians
and the Italian princes. He led the Red Shirts, a group of volunteer sailors, in capturing
Palermo, Sicily’s major city, and Naples.
Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947) ● Italian King; during his long reign (45 years), the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two
World Wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism. Otto Von Bismarck (1815-1898)
● a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs. In the
1860s he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states (excluding Austria) into
a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871 he
skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to preserve German hegemony in a Europe
which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace.
“the nation is a daily plebiscite”
● In an 1882 lecture by French historian Ernest Renan, known for the statements that a nation
is "a daily plebiscite (or referendum)", and that nations are based as much on what the
people jointly forget, as what they remember. “Blood and iron”
● Although Bismarck was an outstanding diplomat, the phrase "blood and iron" has become a
popular description of his foreign policy partly because he did on occasion resort to war to
further the unification of Germany and the expansion of its continental power.
● Aka the Seven Weeks’ War. Prussians win, defeat Austria. Austria is then excluded from
Germany, effectively ending its reign as an effective German power.
Franco-Prussian War (1871)
● All of Germany, now under the leadership of Prussia, went to war against France, the
Germans’ hereditary enemy. Napoleon III surrendered to German forces. King William I of
Prussia was proclaimed German emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. Unification of
Germany under the leadership of Prussia had been completed. Germany was now the most
powerful state on the continent.
Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)
● Advancements in manufacturing and production technology enabled the widespread
adoption of systems like telegraph and railroad networks, gas and water supply, and sewage
systems. The enormous expansion of rail and telegraph lines after 1870 allowed
unprecedented movement of people and ideas, which culminated in a new wave of
globalization. Urbanization happened too, with the rise of the city and the crowding of urban
Second Communist International ???
Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906)
● A political scandal that divided France; it was a striking example of a miscarriage of justice,
where a major role was played by the press and public opinion. In it, Jewish Colonel Dreyfus was charged with being a spy. Dreyfus and the Jew was quickly seen as symbols of the
revolution, and Jewish citizenship represented liberalism in a negative way. Conservatives
reacted, blaming liberalism and gaining a foothold on the political playing field for the next
years to come. Dreyfus was innocent but found guilty.
Indian Mutiny (1857)
● Due to the British-run East India Company using cow and pork fat to lubricate Edelman rifles
(which infringes upon Hindu principles), a group of Indians revolted against the British.
Britain suppresses the revolt, but it was seen by many as the first step towards
independence (or at least it showed how unpopular the Brits were in India. It also led the
British to reorganise the army, the financial system and the administration in India
Berlin Conference (1884-5)
● Aka “Congo Conference.” King of Belgium founded a company to exploit the rubber and gold
resources of the Congo. Europeans were afraid that the king could claim such an area for
himself. Agreed that territory in Africa had to be divided among the powers of Europe,
leading to a scramble for Africa, since everybody wanted a piece. Imperialism at its finest.
George Washington Williams(1849-1891)
● Travelled to King Leopold II's Congo Free State. Shocked by what he saw, he wrote an open
letter to Leopold about the suffering of the region's inhabitants at the hands of Leopold's
agents, which spurred the first public outcry against the regime running the Congo under
which millions lost their lives.
Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles (1919)
● Aka the “War Guilt Clause,” was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty
of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied
and Associated Powers. The article did not use the word "guilt" but it served as a legal basis
to compel Germany to pay reparations. Germans viewed this clause as a national
humiliation, causing anger and resentment among the Germans, and forcing Germany to
accept full responsibility for causing the war.
Revanchism and Irredentism (pertaining to WWI)
● Revanchism and Irredentism both refer to a political or popular movement intended to
reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland. After WWI, Germany lost a lot of land in the Treaty of
Versailles, which left Germans feeling robbed and angry (eventually sparking WWII).
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
● Treaty between Soviet Russia and the Central Powers during WWI which ended Russia’s
involvement in the war. The treaty made Russia give up any association with the Triple
Entente, give up territory (like the Baltic states), and pay heavy reparations. Had lasting
effects on Russia; people distrusted the Bolshevik govt. that signed this treaty because of its
harsh reparations -> civil war continued and the Bolshevik power was threatened.
Lecture 22: Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
● Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founding leader of the Red Army.
Struggled with Stalin for power as Lenin died. He believed that a world revolution was
necessary for the survival of soviet Russia’s socialist party, while Stalin believed that the
Soviet Union could survive without it. Eventually, Stalin won and expelled Trotsky from the
country, letting Stalin establish his dictatorial control, leading to Stalin’s stuff: eliminate
capitalism, collectivize agriculture, industrialize, and the Great Purge, which killed all who
opposed. October 1917
● A seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place
with an armed insurrection in Petrograd. This was when the Bolsheviks took control of the
government, and overthrew the Provisional Government. Really the turning point in the
Russian Revolution, when Lenin and the Bolsheviks take power. Emancipation of the Serfs (1861)
● Tsar Alexander II abolished serfdom, letting serfs acquire freedom and land. However, the
peasants were required to reimburse the state in redemption dues extending over a period of
forty-nine years, so they were not much better off than before, so peasant discontent and
unrest continued. Lecture 23:
30, January 1...
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