report - ASE 324L Laboratory #1 The Tension Test of Steel...

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ASE 324L Laboratory #1 The Tension Test of Steel Amber Mueller January 31, 2008 1
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Abstract In order to compare hot rolled and cold rolled steel, a tensile test is performed on a specimen of each type. The output from the test allows for the generation of a stress- strain curve. Analysis of this curve is completed to find the material properties of each specimen. Comparison of these properties for each specimen shows the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Hot rolled steel is more ductile and better for applications where the steel needs to be flexible. Cold rolled steel has a higher yield strength and it is better for applications where the steel needs to be very strong. 2
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Introduction A tensile test is used to find several characteristics of a specimen, including strength and hardness. It is important to know how a tensile test is done and how to interpret the data returned by the test. Using the data provided, one can create stress- strain curves to see how the material behaves during elasticity, perfect plasticity, hardening, necking and fracture. These results help to compare the characteristics of different materials or different manufacturing processes of the same material. A way to shape steel into a variety of shapes and sizes is to roll it. It can be hot rolled or cold rolled. Hot rolling means that the steel is rolled at a temperature above the annealing temperature, where it is permanently deformed at high temperatures and recrystallization occurs. Cold rolling means that the steel is rolled at a temperature below the annealing temperature, where it is permanently deformed at room temperature and there is no recrystallization but the crystals are highly elongated. To compare these two rolling methods, similar specimens of each type are tested and compared. The specimen is displaced at a constant rate until it fractures. 3
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Experimental and Data Reduction Procedures Hot rolled and cold rolled 1020 steel specimens were used. Specifications of length and diameter can be found in Table 1. The gage lengths were marked on the specimens for comparison to final length. Each specimen was secured in an Instron testing machine and an extensometer was attached to the specimen. The Instron machine was set to displace the crosshead at 0.1 inches per minute. The Instron machine and the extensometer output data for time, crosshead displacement, load, axial strain, and radial strain. The specimens were ‘reassembled’ to measure the final lengths and diameters as seen in Table 1. Output data was converted using calibration constants as shown.
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report - ASE 324L Laboratory #1 The Tension Test of Steel...

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