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Assess the cardiac status of adult clients who have interferences with cardiovascular function.Brunner & Suddarth pp.684-707Brunner & Suddarth pp.707-719Brunner & Suddarth pp.824-825Review glossary of terms on pg. 684TopicsReview anatomy and physiology of cardio system :oEndocardium: inner layer of the heart, which consists of endothelial tissue and lines theinside of the heart and valves.oMyocardium: The middle layer of the heart, made up of muscle fibers and is responsiblefor the pumping action.oEpicardium: exterior layer of the heart.oPericardium: Thin, fibrous sac that encases the heart.It protects the heart. Two layersand the space is filled with 15-20mL of thin, clear, pericardial fluid that lubricates andcushions.oSeptum: muscular wall that separates the heart into two halves, right and left.oRight side of the heart: Right atrium, tricuspid valve, left ventricle, pulmonic valve, lungsRight atrium: thin-walled structure that receives deoxygenated venous bloodfrom all peripheral tissues by way of the superior and inferior vena cavae andfrom the heart muscle by way of the coronary sinus. Most of this venous returnflows passively from the RA, through the open tricuspid valve, and to the rightventricle during ventricular diastole, or filling. The remaining venous return isactively propelled by the RA into the right ventricle during atrial systole, orcontraction.Right ventricle: flat, muscular pump. The RV generates enough pressure to closethe tricuspid valve, open the pulmonic valve, and propel blood into thepulmonary artery and the lungs. The workload of the right ventricle is lightcompared to the left ventricle because the pulmonary system is normally a low-pressure system, which imposes less resistance to flow.oLeft side of the heart: lungs, four pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle,aortic valve, aorta, body.Left atrium: blood flows from the lungs through four pulmonary veins into theleft atrium. Blood then flows through an opened mitral valve into the leftventricle during ventricular diastole. When the left ventricle is almost full, theleft atrium contracts, pumping the remaining blood volume into the leftventricle.Left ventricle: Largest and most muscular chamber of the heart. Its wall is two tothree times the thickness of the right ventricular wall. The left ventricle mustgenerate a higher pressure because it must contract against a high-pressuresystemic circulation, which imposes a greater resistance to blood flow. Withsystolic contraction, the left ventricle generates enough pressure to close themitral valve and open the aortic valve. Blood is propelled into the aorta and intothe systemic arterial circulation.
oValves :Atrioventricular valves: The AV valves separate the atria from the ventricles. Thetricuspid valve is composed of three leaflets and separates the RA from the rightventricle. The mitral, or bicuspid valve, is composed of two leaflets andseparates the left atrium from the left ventricle. During ventricular diastole, the