talk like TED ch 8.pdf - _mm.m we pwmtmwxmm.mMm-mzmmmmawee...

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Unformatted text preview: fl_flfi_fimfim .m- we . pwmtmwxmm.mMm-mzmmmmawefie assumes» smeammnmyeruwmymassemw ffiflfiwgamm.mmmmmm a-mir‘mw. 8. Paint 3 Mental Picture with Multisensory Experiences It is better to present an explanation in words and pie- tures than soleiy in words. 41:. manna MAYER, Psvoanmmsr, UNWERSITY at CALEFDRMA, SANTA BARBARA WATER ISN’T EMBTIDNALLY VWID UNLESS you don’t have it. Then it becomes the only thing you ever think about. Michael Pritchard was inspired to invent a portable water—filtration system after the events of the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2.004 and Hur- ricane Katrina in 2005. In those events, people died or became seriously ill because they lacked safe drinking water. Pritchard invented the portable LIFESAVER filter, which turns filthy water into drinkable water. In 2009 Pritchard delivered a TED presen— tation about his invention. It’s been viewed more than three mil- lion times, garnering attention any entrepreneur would envy. Pritchard opens the presentation with a photograph of a little 204 | DARMINE GALLD boy, dressed in rags, scooping up rancid, dirty water from a muddy field. “Now I see you’ve all been enjoying the water that’s been pro— vided for you here at the conference over the past couple of days.- And I’m sure you'll feel that it’s from a safe source,”1 he begins tell- ing the audience. “But what if it wasn't? What if it was from a source like this? Then statistics would actually say that half of you would now be suffering with diarrhea.” Pritchard had grabbed the attention of the audience right out of the gate (ajaw-dropping mo- ment) with a simple yet evocative photograph and a statistic that made the audience squirm. And he wasjust getting started. 'Ihree minutes into Pritchard’s presentation, he walks up to a fish tank filied to about three-quarters with water he took from the nearby river Thames. It’s mostly clear, and only slightly murky. “I got to thinking, you know, if we were in the middle of a flood zone in Bangladesh, die water wouldn’t look like this. So I've gone and got some stuff to add into it.” And with that Pritchard begins adding more water—.water from his pOnd, sewage runoff, and, in an act that really turned up the emotional vividness of the demonstration, a "gift from a friend of mine’s rabbit.” Pritchard scooped up some of the water with his device, gave it a few pumps, and poured clean, safe drinking water into a glass. He drank it, as did curator Chris Anderson, who was seated near the stage. 'ihe entire demonstration lasted no more than three minutes. Pritchard’s presentation consisted of Photographs, statistics, and demonstrations. It wasn’t one thing that made his presenta- tion especially memorable—it was all three. Secret #8: Paint a Mental Picture with Multisensory Experiences Deliver presentations with components that touch more than one of the senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Why it works: Remember, the brain does not pay atten— tion to boring things. It's neariy impossible to be bored if you’re tS;-.=;.\<.>.\.:\:.W__. PAINT A MENTAL PICTURE WITH MBLTISENSORY EXPERIENCES l 205 exposed to mesmerizing images, captivating videos, intriguing props, beautiful words, and more than one voice bringing the story to life. Nobody is going to ask you to build multisensory elements into your presentation, but once they experience it, they’ll love every minute of it. The brain craves multisensory experiences. Your audience might not be able to explain why they love your presen- tation; it will be your little secret. MULTIMEDIA EXPERIENCES ENHANCE LEARNING Several years ago I had a conversation with Dr. Richard Mayer, a professor of psychology at UC Santa Barbara and the principal proponent of multimedia learning. In a study titled “A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning,” Mayer suggests that it’s far more effective to explain concepts using multiple methods of sensory inputs—"such as auditory, visual, and kinesthetic. Mayer is con- vinced that one of the most important areas of study in cognitive psychology is the understanding of how multimedia can foster student learning. In Mayer’s experiments, students who were exposed to mul- tisensory environments—text, pictures, animation, and video—- always, not sometimes, always had much more accurate recall of the information than those students who only heard or read the information. Mayer said the principle should not be surprising. When the brain is allowed to build two mental representations of an explanation—a verbal model and a visual model—the mental connections are not just a little stronger. They are much, much stronger. Add touch and you’ve got a winner! ‘ The differences between two types of learning (auditory and visual) were even more striking when the “audience,” the people learning the information, lacked prior knowledge of the material. Students with high prior knowledge of the content can generate their own mental images while simply listening or reading.2 205 I OARMINE GALLD Think about the most important presentations you deliverw— they are probably given to people with “low" prior knowledge of __. the information: pitching a new idea, product, company, or campaign explaining new rules, processes. or guidelines teaching students on the first day of class training employees or salespeople on new tools or customer-service ' initiatives selling a product to a customer who's never used or heard of it launching a unique, revolutionary product or service asking an investor for money to grow your conipany In each of these cases, a multisensory experience often leads to the best results. These audiences are made up of human beings who might be skeptical and hard to persuade, but they are not ' immune to the psychology that drives our behavior. We respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation. ' Great public speakers know this and build presentations around one of the senses predominantly, but they incorporate at least one or two others: sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste. Smell and taste are harder to incorporate in a presentation, but Pritchard offered an example of how to stimulate both senses Without phys- ically touching the audience (if a person imagines how water smells or tastes, it triggers the same areas of the brain as if the person has actually ingested the water). So, with smell and taste out of the way, let's focus on sight, sound, and touch. See It In presentation slides, use pictures instead of text Whenever pos- sible. Your audience is far more likely to recall information PAINT A MENTAL PICTURE WITH MULTISENSORY EXPERIENCES i 207 when it's delivered in a combination of pictures and text rather than text alone. Because vision trumps all other senses, I de— vote a large portion of this chapter to the technique of making your presentation visual. Taking your audience on a journey with the pictures you paint is part art and part science. You must think creatively about transferring your ideas to visually engaging images. For 30 years the world’s best minds have captivated TED audiences around the world with powerful, captivating, inspiring, and memorable images. That’s how they get ideas to spread. Al Gore’s Multimedia Presentation Ignites the Climate Change Movement Former US. vice president Al Gore Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 for his work on global warming. Gore was the highlight of the TED conference in Monterey the preceding year, where he displayed some of the same slides he made famous in the Academy Award—Winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth. When Al Gore won the Nobel Peace Prize, the TED online com- munity asked TEDsters who had seen Gore’s presentation at the conference how it had impacted them or changed their lives. Among the responses: Al Gore's talk at TED opened my eyes to what I needed to do for my grandchildren? generation, and I now consider the impact ‘UJE have on our earth in every venture we undertake. w-Howard Morgan, venture capitalist Gore’s TED presentation on the climate crisis was at once riveting and inspiring—bis portion was so em’dmt—itprompted me to share tbs ml}: with our children, and our eldest, Charlie, new 11, has be— come a one—man global warming marketing macbine. Charlie bar 2138 l cnmmtcauo created his own PowerPoint presentation, which be shares with wirin— ally everyone be meets. — Iefi' Levy, CEO 'Al Gore’s talk at TED 2006 was a turning point in my [952. —David S. Rose, angel investor3 THESE ARE JUST A FEW of the remarks from people who have been inspired after watching Gore's presentation on the threat of global warming, its causes, and what people can do about it. Al Gore’s slide show, designed with Keynote presentation software, is an astonishing example of how the visual display of information has the power to inspire action. The TED audience assembled in Monterey in February 2006 got a preview of the slides that would appear in the movie a few months later. The story behind An Inconvenient Truth begins two years earlier. On May 27, 2064, during a New York City appearance after the premier of the film The Day Afler Tomorrow, Gore gave an abbreviated, 10—minute version of his presentation at a town- hall meeting about climate change. Producer Laurie David was in the audience. “I had never seen it before, and I was floored,”4 she said. “As soon as the evening’s program concluded, I asked him to let me present his full briefing to leaders and friends ih New York and Los Angeles. I would do all the organizing if he would commit to the dates. Gore’s presentation was the most powerful and clear explanation of global warming I had ever seen. And it became my mission to get everyone I knew to see it too.” 7 Think about Laurie David’s observation—the most power- ful and clear explanation she had ever ieen. If Gore had not used slides to visualize the topic of global warming, he would have stood little chance to inspire David to make a movie based on it. PAINT A MENTAL PICTURE WlTH MULTISENSBRY EXPERIENCES i 203 David was inspired because she experienced a multimedia event that looked more like a movie than a typical presentation. I had an opportunity .to interview Sir RiobardBranson for my For-beacon: column on leadership and communication. I asked Branson if he had ever seen a presentation that blew him away. His answer: Al Gore's global-warming presentation. He [Al Gore] presented the irreversible effects of do- ing business as usual on our fragile planet. We had a constructive discussion about how a businessman in dirty fuels businesses [airlines. trains] can open up clean tech markets and start new ways of doing better business. it led me to pledge 100% of Virgin's trans— portation profits to clean energy and to encourage more businesses to equally prioritize people, planet, and profits."5 ——Sir Richard Bransun, founder, Virgin Group If Gore had simply read the text with no supporting visu— als, few people would have been inspired or intrigued. His ideas would have been lost or, at best, relegated to a very small group of individuals who were exceptionally engaged in the topic. The visual display of complex information made the topic clear and easy to grasp. In table 8.1 you can see how Gore explains the basic science of global warming. The left column shows his words; the right column explains the image on the correspond- ing slides and the visual animation that made the visuals so impactful. , Gore understands that complex material requires a simple explanation and more pictures to help the audience understand the 21o i cARMINE sALto AL GBRE’S WORDS WITI-I CORRESPONDING SLIDE DESCRIPTIONS GURE'S WORDS EURE’S SLIBES The most vulnerabie part of the earth‘s Image of earth, sun, and ecological system is the atmosphere; animated yellow rays emanating vulnerable because it's so thin . . . it's thin from sun ' enough that we are capable of changing its composition. That brings up the basic science of global warming. The sun’s radiation comes in the form oi light waves that heat up the earth.3 W”— Some of the radiation that is absorbed and Animation showing red tines—- warms the earth is then re-radiated back representing infrared Into space in the form of infrared radiation—leaving earth‘s radiation. atmosphere Some of the outgoing infrared radiation is Some red lines get trapped trapped by this layer oi atmosphere and under thin line of atmosphere held ll‘lSidB the atmosphere. instead of leaving for space. That's a good thing because it keeps the Photos of factories spewing temperature of the earth within certain smoke boundaries, relatively constant and livable. The probiem is this thin layer of atmoSphere is being thickened by all the globalwarming poilution that's being put up there. What that does is thicken this layer of atmosphere so more of the outgoing infrared is trapped and the atmosphere heats up worldwide. Table 8.1. Al Gore‘s words with corresponding slide descriptions from his lnconveniet Truth” presentation. ' ‘ concepts. Remember Titanic explorer Robert Ballard in chapter 4? His 2008 TED presentation contained 57 slides. There were no words on any slide! He showed photographs and artists’ ren- derings of the fascinating undersea worlds he's discovered, but no text. Why? “I’m storytelling, not lecturing,” Ballard told me. PAINT A MENTAL PICTURE WITH MULTISEMSURY EXPERIENDES Presentation-designexpert and author of Resonate, Nancy Du- arte, created the slides for Al Gore's global—warming presenta- tion. 1 know Nancy very welt andwa share an aesthetic for siide design and _a philosophy of how presentations can truly trans- form the world. According to Duarte in a TEDx talk, “it single idea can start a groundswell, he a flashpoint for a movement, and it canactually rewrite our future,"7'said Duarte. “But an idea is powerless if it stays inside ofyou . . . if you communicate an idea in a way that resonates, change witl happen." The End of PowerPoint As We Know It TED represents the'end of PowerPoint as we know it. Since we’re all sick of “Death by PowerPoint," it’s time to kfll it per— manently. Let me be clear—”I’m not advocating the end ofPowerfi Point as a tool, but the end of traditional PowerPoint design cluttered with text and bullet‘points. The average PowerPoint slide has 40 words. It’s nearly impossible to find one slide in a - TED presentation that contains anywhere near 40 words, and these Presentations are considered among the best in the world. Brené Brown is a research professor at the University of Hous— ton Graduatc College of Social Work. Her presentation that I introduced earlier, “The Power of Vulnerability,” has been viewed more than seven million tiines. Brown did not get the memo that the average PowerPointhas 40 words, and it’s a good thing she didn’t. Cluttered slides detract from the message; Brown’s slides complemented the narrative. How? She used images to replace words whenever possible. As a result, it took Browrt 25 slides before she hit 40 Words, the number of words on a single Bower- Point slide in most presentations. For example, Brown started her presentation with a personal history of her experience as a doctoral student. He: first research professor would tell her, “If you can't measure it, it doesn’t exist." 212 i cARMlNE [mm 8.1: Brena BrlJWl'l speaking aI‘FEn 2012. Courtesy of James Duncan DavidsunITED thand/flunmsdavidsnnmm). For the next two minutes, as she spoke, Brown’s audience saw only that sentence—the quote from her professor—on the screen. She followed the slide with a picture of a baby’s fingers in the hand of her mother as she spoke about her study into interper— sonal “connections." Brown scored points with the audience by using her slides as a backdrop to her story and not as a replace- ment for the story she delivered verbally. Some of the comments on Brown’s TED.com page include the following: ~ Exceptional, Power~packed presentation. Leaned into army word. —Melanie Apa'werj‘id message. —Bil_l Genuine content. No fillers. —}'uliette These Viewers were captivated by Brown’s message, content, and PAINT A MENTAL PlcTURE WITH MULYISENSORY EXPERIENCES I 213 story structure. If Brown had forced them to read wordy slides as she spoke, the message would have been lost. Why? Because the brain cannot multitask as well as you may think it can. Multitasking Is a Myth “Multitasking, when it comes to paying attention, is a myth,"8 according to John Medina, a molecular biologist at the'University of Washington School of Medicine. Medina acknowledges that the brain does multitask at some level—you can walk and talk at the same time. But when it comes to the brain’s ability to pay attention to a lecture, conversation, or presentation, it is simply incapable of paying equal attention to multiple items. “To put it bluntly, research shows that we can’t multitask. We are biologically incapable of processing attention—rich inputs simultaneously.” Think about it. Aren’t we adding an impossible load on our audience when we ask them to listen intently to our words and read along-thy PowerPoint slide at the same time? They can’t do both! So how do you engage the audience, make an emotional connection with them, and get them to pay attention without being distracted? Once again, neuroscience gives us the answer: Picture Superiority Effect {PSE}. Pictures Are Superior Scientists have produced a mountain of evidence showing that concepts presented as pictures instead of words are more likely to be recalled. Put simply, visuals matter—a lot. If you hear infor— mation, you are likely to remember about 10 percent of that infor— mation three days later. Add a picture, however, and your recall rate will soar to 65 percent. To put that into context, a picture will help you remember six times more information than listening to the words alone. . “Human P513 is truly Olympian,” writes Medina. “Tests performed years ago showed that people could remember more immmmnwwian any mmdssmssnw. 14 2 | “RM,“ GAL”, PAINT A MENTAL Plerukr WITH Murnssusonv EXPERIENCES | 215 than through words alone. This has enormous implications on how best to design and deliver presentations that are intended to in— spire or persuade people to take action. than 2,500 pictures with at least 90 percent accuracy several days -' post—exposure, even though subjects saweach picture for about-3' 10 seconds. Accuracy rates a year later still hovered around 63"" percent . . . sprinkled throughout these experiments were corri— parisons with other forms of communication, usually text or oral" presentations. The usual result was PSE demolishes them both. It still does.” Our brains are wired to processvisual information—pictures“ very differently than text and sound. Scientists call the efiect “mob ' . ,, . . . nmodal learning: pictures are processed in several channels instead of one, giving the brain a far deeper and meaningful encoding '7 I experience. The University of Western Ontario psychology professor Allan Paivio was the first to introduce a“dua1—coding" theory. According to his theory, visual and verbal information are stored separately in our memory, they can be stOred as images, words, or both. Concepts that are learned in picture form are encoded as both visual and vet- bal. Words are encoded only verbally in other words, pictures are more richly stamped in our brains and easier to recall. For example, if I ask you to remember the word dog, your brain will register it as a verbal'code. IfI show you a picture of a dog and askyou to remem— ber the word—dew the concept will be recorded visually and ver— bally, significantly increasing the chance that you will recall the concept. Now, dogs are familiar, and if you’re familiar with the concept, it increases your ability to recall it. If, however, you are un— familiar with the material, much like the presentation of new infor— mation as you would hear in a TED presentation, storing the concept as pictures and words is much more effective. MRI s...
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