Jurmain Ess 9e PPT ch 3.pdf

Jurmain Ess 9e PPT ch 3.pdf - CHAPTER 3 The Biological...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–18. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER 3 The Biological Basis of Life
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter Outline The Cell DNA Structure DNA Replication Protein Synthesis
Image of page 2
Chapter Outline What is a Gene? Regulatory Genes Cell Division Chromosomes, Mitosis, Meiosis New Frontiers Why It Matters
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Focus Questions What is the biological basis of life? Does it vary from species to species? How do human beings fit into a biological continuum?
Image of page 4
Genetics The study of gene structure and action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Cell Cells are the basic units of life in all living organisms. In some forms, such as bacteria, a single cell constitutes the entire organism. Complex life forms ( multicellular ), such as plants and animals, are made up of billions of cells. A d l h i d f h An adult human is made up of perhaps as many as 1,000 billion cells, all functioning in complex ways that promote the survival of the individual.
Image of page 6
Cells
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Structure of a Generalized Eukaryotic C ll Cell
Image of page 8
B i Bacterium Each one of these oval- shaped structures is a i l ll d b i single-celled bacterium.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cells Life on earth can be traced back 3.7 billion years to single celled organisms, such as bacteria and blue-green algae. Eukaryotic cells , cells with a nucleus, appeared 1.2 billion years ago. A three-dimensional structure composed of carbohydrates, lipids (fats), nucleic acids, and proteins
Image of page 10
Cell Nucleus A discrete unit surrounded by a thin membrane, called the nuclear membrane . Inside are two kinds of nucleic acids, molecules that contain genetic information that controls the cell s function.
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Molecules Structures made up of two or more atoms. Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures.
Image of page 12
Nucleic Acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cytoplasm Surrounds the nucleus and contains many other types of organelles involved in various activities, such as breaking down nutrients and converting them to other substances, storing and releasing energy, releasing waste, and manufacturing proteins in a process called protein synthesis .
Image of page 14
Organelles Mitochondria - oval structures enclosed within a oval structures enclosed within a folded membrane, containing their own distinct DNA, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Ribosomes – roughly symmetrical and partly composed of RNA; essential in protein synthesis
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cells Somatic cells – celllular components of body tissues, such as muscle, bone, skin, nerve, heart, and brain Gametes – sex cells involved in reproduction and not important l f h b d as structural components of the body Egg cells produced in female ovaries Sperm cells produced n male testes Zygote – union of sex cells to form the potential of developing into a new individual; in this way gametes transmit genetic information from parent to offspring.
Image of page 16
DNA Structure Cellular function and an organism s inheritance depends on the structure and function of DNA.
Image of page 17

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 18
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern