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Jurmain Ess 9e PPT ch 12.pdf

Jurmain Ess 9e PPT ch 12.pdf - CHAPTER 12 Human Variation...

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CHAPTER 12 Human Variation and Adaptation
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Chapter Outline Historical Views of Human Variation The Concept of Race Intelligence Contemporary Interpretations of Human Variation
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Chapter Outline Human Biocultural Evolution Population Genetics The Adaptive Significance of Human Variation The Continuing Impact of Infectious Disease
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Focus Question How do you define race ? race ? What “races” do you define? What traits do you use to assign “race”? What traits do you use to assign race ?
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Historical Views of Human Variation Biological determinism - cultural and biological variations are inherited in the same way. Eugenics - "race improvement" through forced race improvement through forced sterilization of members of some groups and encouraged reproduction among others.
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Traditional Concept of Race Since the 1600s, race has been used to refer to culturally defined groups. Race is used as a biological term, but has enormous social significance. In any racial group, there will be individuals who fall into the normal range of variation for another group for one or several characteristics.
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Polytypic A polytypic species is composed of local populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits. Even within local populations, there s a great deal of genotypic and phenotypic variation between individuals. All contemporary humans are members of the same polytypic species , Homo sapiens .
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Shifting Focus for Physical A th l Anthropology From visible phenotypic variation to the explanation of differences in allele frequencies What is the adaptive significance of such differences? Forensic anthropologists use expertise to identify victims of war and crime
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Intelligence Genetic and environmental factors contribute to intelligence. IQ scores change during a person s lifetime; average IQ scores of different populations overlap. Comple cogniti e abilities howe er meas red are infl enced Complex cognitive abilities, however measured, are influenced by many genes and are thus polygenic . Individual abilities result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. No convincing evidence exists that populations vary in their cognitive abilities, regardless of what some popular books suggest.
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Human Polymorphisms Characteristics with different phenotypic expressions are called polymorphisms . A genetic trait is polymorphic if the locus that governs it has two or more alleles. Geneticists use polymorphisms as a tool to understand evolutionary processes in modern populations.
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Clinal Distributions A cline is a gradual change in the frequency of a trait or allele in populations dispersed over geographical space.
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