Chapter 8 Intro: Second Continental Congress: Congress Drafts Washington: Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings: Battle of Bunker Hill: Olive Branch Petition: Lexington and Concord in April of 1775 became a call to arms as 20,000 Minute Men went to Boston to overwhelm the British. During this time the Second Continental Congress also met in Philadelphia to raise money for an army and navy and draft new proposals to the King for reforms. Met in Philadelphia May 10, 1775. This time all 13 colonies went. Conservative element in Congress was still alive. And there was no real desire for Independence. They hoped that if they kept fighting the King would make some reforms. They drafted more requests for change to the King but expecting to be rejected they also set up funding for an army and navy. The Congress most important decision was to select George Washington to lead the army in Boston. Washington didn’t have that much experience with command his highest rank had been a Colonel with only 1200 men twenty years before. But he had a lot of leadership and character he had patience, courage, self discipline and justice. He served without pay but kept careful expense account of 100,000. He scolded his servant for giving the enemy supplies so that they wouldn’t burn his mansion. His selection was political because people were beginning to mistrust New Englanders so people suggest someone from a southern colony like VI which had the largest population. Thus they choose him for political purposes. Some Americans were affirming their loyalty to the King. Others were raising armies and shooting down soldiers. This war of inconsistency was fought from April 1775 to July 1776 before it was a war of Independence. The war speed increased when Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured the British at Ticonderoga and Crown Point securing artillery for the Boston siege. Then there was the Battle of Bunker Hill in which the Americans lost the hill but they killed the majority of the American soldiers. Even after that Congress was still trying to mend the relationship with the King through the Olive Branch Petition. The King rejected the petition and hired German soldiers known as Hessians. The colonist seized a hill in June 1775. It was actually called Breeds Hill. The British tried to charge the hill with 3000 men. The 1500 Americans mowed down the advance but had to surrender the hill when they ran out of gunpowder. July 1775 Continental Congress created this petition declaring
Hessians: The Abortive Conquest of Canada: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense: Common Sense: Paine and Republicanism : loyalty to the crown and begging for the king to solve problems. The King states in August 1775 that the actions of the colonists were treason and they would be hung.
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