Unformatted text preview: EOSC 114 Homework, Fall 2017: Earthquakes Student ID:___________________ Introduction Today’s reading is a Pulitzer Prize winning article “The Really Big One” by Kathryn Schulz, published in the New Yorker July 20, 2015. Access the article at -‐really-‐big-‐one . It is fairly long but very “easy” to read. Completing this homework will help you improve your abilities to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify hazards to communities in North America’s Pacific Northwest that are caused by earthquakes. Relate those specific hazards to corresponding geological processes. Describe specific consequences and mitigation strategies (and their costs) of earthquake induced hazards. Characterize a scientific reading in terms of the type of article, the author’s intent and the type and reliability of his/her sources. 5. Distinguish between the claims in this article, the basis/reasons the authors are making these claims and the evidence cited by authors supporting these reasons. Instructions 1. Skim the questions in this Worksheet FIRST (see next page), THEN read the article and LASTLY write your answers to the Worksheet questions. OR Consider reading or skimming the article FIRST, THEN read the questions in the Worksheet, and LASTLY re-‐read the article to find answer to the questions. 2. Once you have answered all the Worksheet questions, write the Homework Quiz. All the questions in this Quiz will be taken from the questions in this Worksheet! a. there is a time limit to complete the Homework Quiz so you MUST do the reading and complete the Worksheet BEFORE starting the Quiz; b. the questions on the Quiz are automatically graded versions of SELECTED Worksheet questions, which will include fill-‐in-‐the-‐blank, multiple choice, ordering/ranking, and True/False question types; c. each student will get a slightly different set of questions. 3. After the Homework period closes, feedback will be provided to all students. Treat this as part of your study guide because the concepts learned here are very relevant to the Learning Goals for each module. 4. Note that multiple choice options for Quiz questions are always presented in random order. Do not assume that the question options will be in the same order on the Worksheet as on the Homework Quiz. So read the options carefully before choosing the best answer! Step 1, processes described by the article ¨ What was the estimated cost of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake according to this article? Enter your value as a number without units -‐ for example, $1 million should be entered as 1,000,000. ____________________ ¨ Roughly how long in minutes will shaking likely be felt for an earthquake with magnitude of approximately 8.7? Enter as a number representing minutes, with one decimal point and NO units – for example, 9.8. ____________________ ¨ What is the maximum magnitude predicted for the Cascadia Subduction Zone, or CSZ (enter as a number, for example, 5.6). ____________________ ¨ According to the article, a full release will result in a predicted maximum height of the tsunami wave of more than ______ meters. (enter as a number, for example, 16). ¨ The article quotes two values for a range of values for the amount that the western edge of North America bulges upwards each year. What is the maximum of that range in units of meters? (you need to convert from feet to meters; enter as a number, for example, 8.55.) ______ ¨ How many years have passed between now and the last known major CSZ earthquake? ______ years. ¨ Given two values from the article, what is the maximum amount we can expect the western edge of North America to sink if a CSZ earthquake occurs now? (Answer in units of meters not millimeters; enter as a number, for example, 2.45) ¨ Which type of seismic waves were characterized as “not very harmful, but potentially very useful”? o surface waves (of various types including Love waves, Raleigh waves, etc.) o compressional waves o shear waves ¨ Which type of seismic waves were mentioned as causing the majority of hazardous shaking? o surface waves (of various types including Love waves, Raleigh waves, etc.) o compressional waves o shear waves ¨ The predicted impacts on which part of the Pacific Northwest are not included in the FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) reports, and not really mentioned in this article? o Southern British Columbia o Northern Oregon o Northern Washington State o Southern Oregon o Southern Washington State o Northern California ¨ If there was a large tsunami and Pachena Bay was in need of help, to which community would it be best to truck supplies, so that helicopter flights into Pachena Bay are as short as possible? (Hint, steps for using google maps “measure distance” facility are outlined at ). o Port Alberni o Nanaimo o Port Renfrew o Vancouver o Comox o Tofino
o Victoria ¨ According to this article, what information led to understanding the impact on Pachena Bay due to the last great CSZ earthquake? o Analysis of sea floor core samples. o Dendrochronology of trees in the “ghost forest”. o Long-‐term records of tsunami recorded in Japan. o Oral history of local first-‐nations communities. o Computer-‐based modelling of the seismic behavior of the subduction zone. ¨ Consider the sequence of discoveries that led to understanding of CSZ earthquake history and severity. Put the following list of information in order from oldest to most recently established (1=OLDEST; 6=MOST RECENT). All are in the article but somewhat “buried” within the narrative starting around paragraph 17. ______ Dendrochronology revealing all trees died at once ______ The broader non-‐indigenous community becomes aware of oral history about the impacts of a devastating event experienced by Pacific Ocean coastal communities many generations ago. ______ A tsunami with no apparent cause is experienced (and recorded) in Japan ______ Publication by seismologists matching orphan tsunami to CSZ mega-‐quake in 1700 ______ Sea-‐floor coring yields detailed 10,000 year history. ______ Discovery of ghost forest Step 2, consequences & mitigation ¨ Given the first-‐person experiences recounted by seismologist Dr. Goldfinger, what Mercalli intensity level did the city of Kashiwa experience due to the Tohoku earthquake? For the definition of intensity levels, see the USGS website . Circle one option: I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X ¨ What is one example of information from the text that helped you draw this conclusion? Answer in one sentence with your own words. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ¨ From the description of what it was like to be outside for 4 minutes (first 8 paragraphs), what did you find most compelling as a description of how frightening such an event might be? Write using your own words. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ We will check your estimate of Mercalli intensity level by using the data displayed by USGS for this earthquake. Go to this site: • Click the map to open an interactive map. Scroll or click on the +/– keys to zoom in/out. Kashiwa is 32km north-‐east of Tokyo. • Add/remove intensity data as coloured triangles via the layers icon top right, and click “ShakeMap Stations” (circled à ). • Click any triangle to see its details. • Move your mouse to see lat/long as numbers at bottom left. • First, what is the location of Kashiwa? ¨ Latitude of Kashiwa ______ degrees North (no words, just numbers) ¨ Longitude of Kashiwa ______ degrees East (no words, just numbers) ¨ Now, based on measurements listed as triangles nearby, what value on the Mercalli scale is most appropriate for Kashiwa? ______. ¨ Do you have now, or have you ever had, any sort of Emergency Preparedness Kit? Please answer honestly – all options receive credit. o Yes o Yes I did in a previous home but I do not have one currently. o No, I need one but haven’t got around to making/buying one o No, I don’t know what such a kit should contain. o No, I don’t think I’ll need one. Step 3, characterizing the article Is this a primary, secondary or tertiary source? (For definitions, refer to -‐resources/finding-‐
identifying-‐and-‐citing-‐sources/identifying-‐different-‐types-‐of-‐sources/ . After checking that resource, circle one option for each space. ¨ Is the scope of the article very specific? _____ Yes / No _____ Did authors do all the original research? _____ Yes / No _____ Therefore, this can be described as which of the three types of sources? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ¨ Which one of these most accurately characterizes the main purpose of this article? o Social commentary o A communication about science written to inform non-‐scientists o News for public o Communication to experts about a new scientific method, procedure or discovery o A commentary or report aimed at making recommendations about priorities, policy, or decision making o A report written to address the needs of a client or other third party who may have asked for the report. ¨ How much of the scientific observations, measurements or analyses (i.e. the scientific research) were carried out by the author herself? (Note the difference between “scientific research” and “background research”.) o Most o Some, although most by others o None – all reported results were generated by others ¨ How much of the background research for writing the article do you think was carried out by the author herself? (Note the difference between “scientific research” and “background research”.) o Most o Some, although most by others o None – all reported results were generated by others ¨ Is this article published in a “peer reviewed journal” (disregarding editorial reviews)? o Yes o No o Can’t tell. ¨ How specific was the information forming the bulk of the article? o Most information was associated with a specific, principal question. o Information was associated with a range of issues each of that could be traced to their original sources. o Information covered a wide range of issues some of which would be difficult to “verify”. ¨ What types of sources were used by the author(s)? Circle TRUE or FALSE for each. o TRUE / FALSE One or more citations of specific primary or secondary sources in a reference list. (i.e., T = “was used”, F = “was not used”) o TRUE / FALSE A bibliography for further reading. o TRUE / FALSE One or more citations of tertiary sources in a reference list. o TRUE / FALSE One or more direct quotes from named “experts”. o TRUE / FALSE Work of “experts” was referenced in the writing but not cited in a reference list. o TRUE / FALSE One or more direct quotes from “non-‐experts”. ¨ What writing strategies were used in this article? Fill blanks with Yes, No or “it is not clear”. (On Connect, watch carefully to ensure you are answering each question correctly.) o ____________ Assertions and arguments supported by evidence based on observations, measurements or experiments done by scientists other than the author(s). o ____________ Narrative or personal stories. o ____________ Targeted human emotion. o ____________ Assertions and arguments supported by evidence based on observations, measurements or experiments done by the author(s). o ____________ Descriptions of “aesthetic” aspects like scenes, views and impressions. o ____________ Identified uncertainties, incomplete aspects or needs for further work. To consider the way authors express their arguments, we will use a common framework that involves asking: 1) What is being claimed? 2) What reasons support this claim? 3) What evidence supports these reasons? For example: The author claims that a large CSZ earthquake can be anticipated relatively soon. Reasons for this claim include diverse observations that yield a history of 41 events in this region over past 10,000 years. One example of evidence for this reason involves data from sediment cores gathered up and down the coastline. Articles also sometimes include facts that are true but do not necessarily either claim, reason or provide evidence. Also, unsupported “personal opinions” (either the authors’ or someone else’s) may be included in some kinds of writings. (HINTS: To help distinguish between a claim and a reason, note that a claim can usually be joined to its reason using “We know the …(enter claim here)... makes sense because” or “due to the fact that” or some similar joining phrase. Evidence should be a concrete observation, measurement or calculation. ¨ “In 2009, he found some land for sale outside the inundation zone, and proposed building a new K-‐12 campus there”. This statement (not exactly as written in the paper) would be best considered: o a claim made in the paper that is supported by reasons given in the paper. o a reason given in the paper that supports a claim the author(s) made. o evidence presented by the author(s) that provides support for a reason. o An opinion expressed by either the author or someone quoted by the author. o None of these. ¨ “The Pacific Northwest has experienced forty-‐one subduction-‐zone earthquakes in the past ten thousand years”. This statement (not exactly as written in the paper) would be best considered ____________ (same options as above). ¨ “Samples of the sea floor have been collected all along the pacific west coast to determine where and when underwater landslides occurred”. This statement (not exactly as written in the paper) would be best considered ____________ (same options as above). ¨ “Materials in each core, or seafloor sample, indicate if and when a tsunami event occurred”. This statement (not exactly as written in the paper) would be best considered ____________ (same options as above). ¨ “The Cascadia situation, a calamity in its own right, is also a parable for this age of ecological reckoning”. This statement (not exactly as written in the paper) would be best considered ____________ (same options as above). Step 4: you will be asked these feedback questions: ¨ What is one question you would like to ask to help clarify some aspect of this reading? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ¨ Name one thing that surprised you most that you learned from reading this article. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ¨ For which of the questions in this worksheet are you MOST likely to look at the feedback provided upon completion? Just enter the question number(s). ¨ How long did you spend on this entire homework, from starting to read to final submission? ______ hours (answer using decimals, as in “1.5”. Value should be in units of hours). ¨ To what extent did this homework increase your knowledge or understanding about the underlying processes causing earthquakes and tsunami? o Significantly o Somewhat o Only a little o Not at all o Worse than none -‐ now I'm more confused. ¨ To what extent did this homework increase your understanding of how society reacts to knowledge about natural disasters? o Same options as above ¨ To what extent did this homework help make the earthquake module more interesting or relevant? o Same options as above ¨ To what extent did this homework increase your appreciation for the distinction between peer-‐reviewed scientific articles versus well-‐written science articles targeting the “well-‐informed” public? o Same options as above IMPORTANT REMINDERS: The MOST COMMON ERROR made by students in the past is not reading questions on Connect carefully. So, work online with this completed worksheet beside you. Remember our CLASS CODE OF CONDUCT, and UBC’s strict rules regarding academic integrity. See . ...
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