L8_immunology.pptx - Immunology Antibodies(Ab An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like

L8_immunology.pptx - Immunology Antibodies(Ab An antibody...

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Immunology
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Antibodies (Ab) An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. Monoclonal antibodies ( mAb ) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different cell lines. Isotypes According to differences in their heavy chain constant domains, immunoglobulins are grouped into five classes, or isotypes: IgG , IgA , IgM , IgD , and IgE . IgM: normally pentamer, ocassionally hexamer, multiple immunoglobins linked with disulfide bonds IgE: on the surface of plasma membrane cells, play a role in immediate hypersensitive and denfensive for parasiteof mast IgG: IgG1 (66%), IgG2 (23%), IgG3 (7%) and IgG4 (4%) , blood and tissue liquid. IgA:IgA1 (90%) and IgA2 (10%), stomach and intestines IgD:1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of B-lymphocytes, function unknown
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Ab Classes found in Humans
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Antibody isotypes of mammals Name Types Description Antibody Complexes IgA 2 Found in mucosal areas, such as the gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents colonization by pathogens. Also found in saliva, tears, and breast milk. IgD 1 Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens. It has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors. IgE 1 Binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells and basophils, and is involved in allergy. Also protects against parasitic worms IgG 4 In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens. The only antibody capable of crossing the placenta to give passive immunity to the fetus IgM 1 Expressed on the surface of B cells (monomer) and in a secreted form (pentamer) with very high avidity. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG
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The structure of antibodies
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The immune system and memory of infections Secondary immunity, the resistance to certain diseases after having had them once, results from production of Memory B and T cells during the first exposure to the antigen. A second exposure to the same antigen produces a more massive and faster response. The secondary response is the basis for vaccination.
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Specific antibodies (Abs) are produced after exposure to antigens (Ags). When a new is introduced into an animal with a healthy immune system, the immune system produces Abs that are specific to (i.e., that bind to) that Ag. In this diagram, a new Ag (A) is administered at time zero. In the initial response to A, Ab production increases over time; the Ab produced over the first weeks are of class immunoglobulin (Ig) M, but class IgG is produced in abundance after several weeks.
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