25.3 notesp. 575-589The Hallowed Halls of Ivy-Women’s collegessuch as Vassar were gaining ground, and universities open to both genders were blossoming, notably in the Midwest. -Black collegesemerged, like Howard University in Washington D.C. and Atlanta University. Couldn’t attend white institutions until the civil rights movement in the 1960s-The Morrill Actpassed after the South had seceded, and provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education. “Land- grant colleges,’’most of which became state universities, in turn bound themselves to provide certain services, such as military training. -The Hatch Actextended the Morrill Act by providing federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges. -Philanthropistswere described as “one who steals money privately and gives publically. -Almost $150 million were donated.-Examplesof new private universities that were funded included Cornell, Stanford University from railroad tycoon Leland Stanford, and the University of Chicago from John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller gave $550 million.-Johns HopkinsUniversity became the first top-rate graduate school. It carried German tradition. Woodrow Wilson also attended this school for his Ph.D.March of the Mind-The elective systemallows students to pick their classes.-Medical schoolsbecame more advanced. Instead of American Indian remedies (“good forman or beast”), science helped public health.-Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister made a mark on America with the discovery of germs. Beards were no longer popular as time went on.-William Jamesalso served under the Harvard faculty and was one of the greatest intellectuals. -William Jameswrote influentially on psychology with books like Principles of Psychologyand Pragmatism(saying America's contribution to any idea was its usefulness, or not).The Appeal of the Press-Best- sellersof the 1880s were generally old favorites like David Copperfield and Ivanhoe -The Library of Congressopened in 1897 and Andrew Carnegie(Scottish) had given $60 million to build local libraries across the U.S.-By 1900, there were about 9,000libraries with at least 300 books-Joseph Pulitzerfrom St. Louis (New York World) mastered sensational reporting, called yellow journalism after his comic "The Yellow Kid." He was Hungarian and almost blind.