Anthropology 201 - Anthropology 201 Fall 2006 Final Exam...

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Anthropology 201 Fall 2006 Final Exam Review Edward Burnett Tylor -Culture is broad; it’s learned and shared. -Darwinism- species over produce. -Some are better at exploiting natural resources than others, and as a result, are more likely to reproduce more offspring than those who don’t exploit natural resources. -Sex increases diversity of a species, which increases survival, because it allows people to adapt to any environment. -Sub-speciation has never occurred because contemporary humans have never been isolated long enough. There is constant genetic exchange between human populations. -Race is not useful in a scientific point of view because there’s too much diversity. Enlightenment-John Locke -Argued that humans are a product of their environment, not biology. -Cultural Evolutionist –said you could rate societies on an evolutionary scale based on how rational they were. Didn’t work because there was no definition for what was and wasn’t rational. Also because the scale was ethnocentric. -Ethnocentric- idea of seeing the world through their own culture, that their ideas, and beliefs were right and others were wrong. F. Boas - Cultural Relativity- every society is a product of its own personal history. Can’t judge another society on the basis of our own cultural values. -Cultural evolutionary model-colonial era, when Europe was expanding. It was the justification for colonialism. Europeans saw themselves as a superior society. Europeans saw it as their burden to take care of the less rational. -By the 1850’s the model started to be viewed in racial terms. Said people were a product of their biology (race). Different racial groups had different capabilities of rational thought. E. Durkheim -Functionalism- a model attempting to understand cultural diversity using an etic approach (objective). -Believed that societies exist at a level above or beyond the individual. -Societies can’t be reduced down to the individual. -Societies are composed of social facts. -Social Fact- rules both formal and informal necessary for the society to function.
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-They are rules of the entire society, widely known. They always carry a sanction, it you violate a social fact you will be punished. -Social facts are essential for the smooth functioning of everyday life and social solidarity of society. -Socialization- internalizes social facts within you as you grow up so they are apart of your make-up. -Collective Conscience-collection of social facts-how an individual defines itself. -Collective Representation-Groups will have a symbolic representation of the group and their social facts, represents the values of the people. (Ex. Sparty) Mulinowski - Organic Functionalism - Work with the Trobriand Islands during WWII. -Field work. Participant observation- have to participate in the culture you are
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Anthropology 201 - Anthropology 201 Fall 2006 Final Exam...

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