Biology 110 Exam 3 review - Biology 110 Exam 3 review...

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Biology 110 Exam 3 review Anthophytes/Angiosperms: flowers, fruits are present Functions of fruits: protection for seeds and seed dispersal Plant Structure and Function Two Systems: 1. Root system-primary root and accessory roots 2. Shoot system-stems, leaves and reproductive structures 1. Roots Functions: anchor the shoot system, absorb materials, and store materials Primary Root-taproot system and fibrous root system -Taproot-primary most obvious, largest. Found primarily in the Eudicots. -Fibrous-primarily cannot be distinguished from accessory. Found in Monocots. 2.Stems (trunks, branches, vines) Supports and distributes the leaves Divided into Nodes-areas where new growth occurs. Areas between nodes called internodes. Layers from outside to inside- cuticle, epidermis, cortex -Cuticle-waxy secretion, reduces water loss -Epidermis produces cuticle -Cortex made up of Parencyma (chloroplasts) and Sclerenchma cells -Parrencyma cells-stores materials, provides support for the stem, and are green in color. -Sclerenchyma cells-provides support and strength -Phloem/Xylem-vascular bundles -Pith- Centrally located cells, stores material. 3. Leaves -Factories of photosynthesis -Blade joined to stem by petiole Kingdom 5: Fungi Molecular Taxonomy -Multicellular 1
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-Mycelium-Hyphae -Cell wall made of chitin -Septa-incomplete cross walls that divide the hypha into cell like units. Have pores that allow the movement of materials through the hypha. -Hyphae-Rhizoids, Haustoria, Mycorrhizae -Rhizoids-attach to substrate -Haustoria-parasitic Fungi, infect cells -Mycorrhizae- associated with plant roots -Heterotrophic with external digestion. Fungi secrete enzymes, digestion occurs and then absorption takes place. -Saprobes-attach to and live off of dead organic matter Asexual Reproduction 1. Budding-occurs in yeasts and other unicellular Fungi 2. Hyphae Fragmentation- hyphae split 3. Spore Formation- spore formed in structure called sporangium (many types) that can form a new fungus -Heterokaryotic- hyphae fuse and exchange nuclei -Commercial uses- beers, wines, soy sauce, Penicillin, yeast -Can be edible or poisonous Six Phyla of Fungi 1. Chytridiomycota- -Aquatic -Only phyla to have stage with Flagellum -Flagellated zoospores -Absorption -Free living -Parasitic -Ancestral Chytrid gave rise to the present Chytrid and other fungi groups 2. Zygomycota -Terrestrial -No septa -“The Conjugating Fungi” -No Fruiting body -Hyphae spread very quickly -Zygosporangium houses zygospore, which produces the sporangium -Have Sporangia 3. Glomeromycota -Terrestrial 2
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-Asexual Reproduction -Arbuscular Mycorrhizae- hyphae that penetrate into the cell wall of plants, but do not penetrate into/through the cell membrane -Molecularly, very different form other phyla 4. Ascomycota -Variety of habitats - “Sac Fungi” - Ascus- Sac-like structure were nuclear fusion and meiosis occur - Perforated septa - Conidia- haploid stages produced by asexual reproduction that can form a new individual fungus.
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