Straight & Level•Ailerons used to keep wings level: Requires observing over-the-nose and side-to-side (scan)•Rudder used to hold heading (keep airplane from yawing): Again, check over-the-nose and side-to-side•Elevator used to maintain altitude: Scan over nose and side to side.
Straight & Level•Power is set for desired performance•Higher cruise power settings give better speed•Lower cruise power settings give better range
Straight Line Climb•Ailerons used to keep wings level (observe over the nose and side to side)•Rudder used to hold heading •Keep airplane from yawing •Right rudder pressure added•Observe over the nose and side to side•Elevator used to maintain airspeed•Observe over the nose and side to side•Verify with airspeed indicator
Climb Initiation•Raise nose to climb attitude (A)•Increase power to full throttle (P)•Adjust pitch attitude with elevator to maintain desired airspeed depending on type of climb•Trim away control pressures (T)
Types of Climb•Best Angle: Greatest altitude gain in shortest distance•Best Rate: Greatest altitude gain in shortest time•Cruise: Lower climb rate and angle but better speed, visibility over the nose, and engine cooling (gets us there faster)
Best Angle of Climb• Know as VX•Lower speed – 50 kts (58 mph) in the Citabria•Used to clear obstacles (short runway)Remember an “X” has lots of angles…thus Vxis best angleof climb.
Best Rate of Climb• Known as VY•Faster speed – 67 kts (77 mph) in the Citabria•Used to gain altitude as quickly as possible usually through 1,000’ AGL (Above Ground Level)
Cruise Climb•Compromise between climb performance and cruise speed•No “normal” cruise climb in the Citabria, but we use cruise climb in the Skyhawk (C172) and the Twinstar•Skyhawk: 85 kts•Twinstar: 100 kts•Generally used above 1000’ AGL•Starts moving us toward destination faster•Improves forward visibility•Improves engine cooling
Leveling Off After Climb•Lower the nose to level attitude (A)•Once cruise speed is achievedreduce power to cruise power setting (P)•Trim away control pressures (T)
Straight Line Descent•Ailerons used to keep wings level (observe over the nose and side to side)•Rudder used to hold heading•Keep airplane from yawing•Left rudder pressure•Observe over the nose and side to side•Elevator used to maintain airspeed (within reason…more later)•Observe over nose and side to side•Verify with airspeed indicator
Descent Initiation•Reduce power (P)•Lower the nose slightly (pitch controls airspeed) (A)•Trim away control pressures (T)
Leveling off After Descent•Raise the nose to level attitude (A)•Increase power to cruise power (P)•Trim away control pressures (T)
Types of Descent•Powered•Gliding (no power or power at idle)