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Biology midterm 2 study guideDiffusion:Movement of solutes across a semipermeable membrane. The diffusion will stop when the concentration is equal. it will move from the high to the low.Diffusion•Of solutes: Small, uncharged or polar molecules.•Of water: Osmosis.Facilitated Diffusion•Integral Proteins.Active Transport•Pumps: is the connection that allow protein to go from are of low to area of high using ATP.Equilibrium:An equal concentration ofmolecules on either side of the membrane.When the dye molecules reach equilibrium,the movement of all molecules across themembrane will not stop.Net Movement: Initially, in which direction didthe majority of dye molecules moveMovement: these dye molecules will continueto pass through the membrane in a randomfashion (Brownian Motion).Semi permeabilitycan occur in eitherdirection across the membraneOsmosis:Specialized diffusion of water.•Water will move along itsconcentration gradient from high concentration to low concentration. The volume Is going to increase.Active transport:ATP will donate a phosphate. This phosphate will make it open to the outside. Then the potassium can fit from the outside and then the phosphate will be removed and change the ATP allow the shape to change.in the Co transport is when we need molecules to move into and out if the cell.Symport:both are moving the same way Antiport:on is going out and the second Is going in When we don’t see ATP we call it passive transport, in the other hand when we see an ATP its called active transport What are some differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?•prokaryotic: They don’t have nucleus, cell walls with peptidoglycan, and unicellular •Eukaryotic: more organelles, more comportment, unicellular or multicellular Eukaryotic:
Biology midterm 2 study guideUntil recently, prokaryotes werethought to have no membrane-boundstructures or organelles.•Ribosomes•Simple cytoskeleton•Other membranes:•Photosyntheticmembranes•Storage of ions andenzymesWhat are some differences between animal and plant cells?•Cell wall in planet cells not in animals•Plant cells have chloroplast •Planet cells have a central vacuole= lysosome (animal)•Plasmodesmata there is a holes in the planet cells on the top.Cells are small because They should be smallso They can have aquatic surface area tosupport their volume.vesicles move around the endomembranesystem using Motor protein such as a kinesin.Mitochondria & Chloroplasts:•2 membranes•Possess their own DNA–Respiration andphotosynthesis•Undergo binary fission to(they candived in half to make another“reproduce”•Mitochondria was a bacterial cellthen after a while they became oneof the cell organelle Is the Plasma Membrane the End of a Cell?