Lecture_Five - Lecture Five Lecture 5 Rome Italy and...

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Lecture Five Lecture 5: Rome, Italy, and Carthage Catching up with Lecture 4: More on Cato A. early life; Fabius Maximus; not born in Rome-born in countryside of Sabines (upright farmer, not need fancy things) B. Cato the Censor (184-179 B.C.), pp. 136-140 (censor take census every 5 yrs., p. 137-campaign style-not just tell people what they want to hear and it impressed people, so got elected; eliminated senators if had shady business; not totally inflexible-intro new buildings (basilica), learned Greek, marry young girl); (in senate-people who have enough money and good moral standing) sumptuary legislation; sumptuary legislation (controlling consumption during time when Rome becoming rich and people liked to show off) p I. The Roman Expansion in Italy Various factors, e.g., no primogeniture (oldest son not get estate-parcel out between kids so need more land); bellum pium et iustum (pious and just war- whatever war undertook, had to be sanctified by gods (by throwing spear into enemy land), had a justification); military tactics: phalanx vs. maniple (see Lect. 4) Challenge and response ( Arnold Toynbee every place has challenges and depend on how handle it) 1. external: divide and rule-not give enemies the same deal-give diff privileges; Latin League (dissolved in 338 B.C.-Rome just conquered them); 295 B.C.: battle at Sentinum (northern Italy ruled by Romans now) against Etruscans (not unified, so could take over) and Gauls; 281-272 B.C.: war against Pyrrhus (defeats Romans)( Pyrrhic victory -win, but losses are so big, so not much of a victory-just gives land to Romans); ius commercii (fair trade) , or ius conubii (marry with Romans)- if behave, get more rights, so kept conquered territories competing with each other-only 300,000 troops, so not based on military 2. internal: civil rights; patricians (haves) vs. plebeians (depended on for manpower, so more and more power gives to plebeians) 494 B.C.: secession (probably mythological); 450 B.C.: plebeians succeed in having some laws written down Laws of the 12 Tables ; tribunes of the people and their (plebeian?) veto power; 367 B.C.: plebeian get right to elect a plebeian consul (there were 2 consuls); 300 B.C.: plebeian augurs
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(religious officials; look at flight of birds to look for signs that might be unfavorable before starting important initiatives-political approval system); 287 B.C.: Lex Hortensia (political assembly made of plebs had legislative power; when law made by plebs, it was binding) (senate not upper house) II. The First Punic War (264-241 B.C.-not planned-started over 3 rd party dispute): Sicily Carthaginians are THE merchants; not expansion oriented; great fleet (military and commercial) A. Origins: 1. In 265 B.C., a horde of Italian mercenaries, the Mamertines, take over the Sicilian city of Messina 2. The Messinians appeal to Syracuse; in 265 B.C., a Syracusan expedition almost dislodges the Mamertines 3. Thereupon, the Mamertines appeal to Carthage; a Carthaginian garrison is established in Messina
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Lecture_Five - Lecture Five Lecture 5 Rome Italy and...

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