Lecture_Two - Lecture Two Lecture 2 THE ETRUSCANS(AND ROME...

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Lecture Two January 17, 2008 Lecture 2: THE ETRUSCANS (AND ROME) I. The Significance of the Etruscans A. in their own right A very advanced civilization. Not replicated anywhere else. B. as transmitters of Greek culture Opened up the Italians to different cultures from the East. o Romans were not cultural imperialists. Etruscans looked to Greece and learned from them. Took up their Olympic religion C. influence on Romans Origins of Rome- Two stories: o Romulus o Aeneas: From Troy a refugee. o Son of Anchises and Venus Anchises was paralyzed so Aeneas had to carry him out of Troy. Was maimed when he bragged about sleeping with Venus. Etruscan myth. II. Origins vs. formation A. Oriental affinities According to Herodotus the Etruscans came from Asia Minor, Lydia because they were so unlike other Italians. There was a big famine in Lydia and they came to Italy around 750 B.C. There was no evidence of destruction, a peaceful beginning 1. role of women Etruscans were matronymic. They took the mother’s name. Women had an emphasis in art. Often depicted on top of the sarcophagus with the husband 2. revealed religion; augurs Oriented towards divination of natural phenomena. Augurs were priests who divined the will of the gods by flight patterns of birds. Often consulted before major events. 3. near easterners on Ischia (8th cent.) Island close to Crete. Have evidence of microsociety. Brought art forms from the East and blended to make hybrid people and culture B. Indigenous Dionysius of Halicarnassus, (1st cent. B.C.)
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Said the Etruscans must have been native. Said there was no evidence of arrival, not entirely true. Villanovans, o Iron age civilization. o Etruscians used the iron mines to their advantage. o hut urns were used by the Villanovans, changed later to canopic urns (human figures) C. Culture as dynamic process, Developing civilization. Not so much ‘origin’ but more ‘formation’ with continuing development, not static, keeps going III. Cultural Life as seen through the tombs A. Early period zest of life- The depictions showed people having a good, lively time. The affirmation of life. Tomb of Hunting and Fishing (520 B.C.) A happy and airy depiction of hunting and fishing. Tomb of Lionesses (6th cent.) Depicts music, dancing, drinking, joy B. Gloom and doom Romans begin pushing the Etruscans out. Tomb of Orcus (3rd cent. B.C.) Hades and Persephone bid goodbye Armed men, heroes. Scenes of murder The Etruscans incorporated demons into their religion. o Execution scene from the Iliad. IV. Historical sketch Begin c. 750 B.C. 540 B.C.: Etruscan city of Caere and Carthaginians defeat Greeks 474 B.C.: Hiero of Syracuse defeats Etruscan forces at Cumae (near Naples) c. 520-450: Roman secession, followed by gradual political attrition By 295 B.C.: final reduction by Rome Political end vs. cultural survival: o Politically the Etruscans were whipped out, but culturally they kept on because of constant adoption of their culture.
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