Potential ID’s Dreyfus Affair Resulted from the fear of German spies, accompanied by deep-rooted institutional racism, and religious intolerance in pre-war France o Centered on intelligence officer Major Walsin-Esterhazy Big time gambler and racked up a lot of debt Resorted to treason selling secrets to the German military attaché in Paris o Since 1850, foreign embassies had been allowed to place military personnel on their staff to observe and monitor the armed forces of that country and enjoy the privacy of the diplomatic pouches to transmit their findings secretly Marie Bastian o Cleaning lady o Worked at German Embassy but employed by French Intelligence o Finds unsigned documents that discuss French mobilization plan o Tells her real boss (counter-intelligence) o French is angry, wants to keep their man from being found so they blame: Alfred Dreyfus (loyal, good soldier, Jewish) Ends up being arrested for allegedly having the “same handwriting” but it was really because he was Jewish Put on trial, found guilty, sent to Devil’s island (for life) Not until 1906 that Dreyfus was pardoned, able to go back to the army, granted Major, and given the medal of honor for his troubles Anti-semites Jews = bad Foreshadows anti-semitism and Gripped French society With all these scandals new spy lit emerges that jumps on paranoia o “The Riddle of the sands” People keep filing reports of acts of espionage left and right No system was in place to root out German Spies o Prime Minister decides to establish a secret service specifically to root out German spies known as MO5 MI5/MI6 MO5 o Established to weed out German Spies o One man-band o Becomes MI5 MI5 =FBI (domestic) o 1909 a group is commissioned to look at German Spies in Britain o Had an auspicious start
o Tasked with look at German Spies o 2 Guys One of them is a spymaster Multilingual Sought out German spies MI6 = CIA (overseas) o 1906 o Commissioned in 1912 o Mansfield Curving “C” o Dealt with overseas intelligence o Originally named special intelligence section Zimmerman Telegram Get America to stay neutral o Germans didn’t want America in the war o Wanted to hurt/stop US trade to Allies British navy cut Germany off from oversea trade German’s send in Rintalin o Blows out of munitions plant in NJ Zimmerman telegram o Artur Zimmerman = foreign secretary of Germany o Sends telegram to Germany ambassador in D.C to contact Mexican ambassador to encourage Mexico to side with Germans In exchange for German support for Mexico to keep southwest support in the US Telegram was intercepted by Room 40 where it was partly decrypted o British tapped trans-Atlantic cable so Britain found out But Britain doesn’t want Germany to know they know so they have to let U.S know by other means They also didn’t want the U.S to know they could intercept their messages as well
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- Summer '19