lecture 2-8 human evolution

lecture 2-8 human evolution - Chapter 34(pp701-707...

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Chapter 34 (pp701-707): Hominoids, hominids, & Homo sapiens Learning objectives Distinguish between anthropoid, hominoid and hominid. Describe the evolution of hominids in terms of characteristics such as brain size, skeletal changes, bipedalism, sexual dimorphism, tool use, etc. Know the traits that are distinctive human Describe the appearance of hominid species as indicated by the fossil record Explain what is known about Homo neanderthalensis Explain what is meant by the ‘Out of Africa’ hypothesis? The ‘multiregional’ hypothesis?
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First – This is a popular misconception of ‘human evolution’.
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Derived (unique) Characters of Primates Most primates Have hands and feet adapted for grasping Primates also have A large brain and short jaws Forward-looking eyes close together on the face, providing depth perception Well-developed parental care and complex social behavior A fully opposable thumb
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Living Primates There are three main groups of living primates The lemurs of Madagascar and the lorises and pottos of tropical Africa and southern Asia The tarsiers (Southeast Asia) The anthropoids, which include monkeys, apes and hominids (humans) worldwide Hominoid refers to apes (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees) and humans Hominid refers various species recognized as ‘human’, and includes the modern human Homo sapiens
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Hominoids Diverged from Old World monkeys about 20–25 million years ago [nonhuman hominoids live only in Africa] Paleoanthropologists* have discovered fossils of approximately 20 species of extinct hominoids These are more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees *paleoanthropology – the study of human origins
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lecture 2-8 human evolution - Chapter 34(pp701-707...

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