Diabetes Fact Sheet.docx - Diabetes Pathophysiology o Diabetes Chronic metabolic disease characterized by a deficiency of insulin o Complications

Diabetes Fact Sheet.docx - Diabetes Pathophysiology o...

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Diabetes Pathophysiology : o Diabetes: Chronic metabolic disease characterized by a deficiency of insulin o Complications: Retinopathy Neuropathy Heart attack Stroke Silent ischemia o Type 1: Absolute insulin deficiency Marked reduction in insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas Exogenous insulin must be supplied by injection o Type 2: Relative insulin deficiency (either elevated, reduced, or normal insulin levels) Hyperglycemia Contributing factors: genetics, environment insulin abnormalities, increased glucose production, increased fat breakdown, defective hormone secretion Management/Medications: o Goal: normalize blood glucose o Diabetes Food Guide Pyramid: Groupings: food based on their carbohydrate and protein content rather than their classification of food
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Serving Sizes are different o Glycemic Index: Low GI: produce small fluctuations in blood glucose levels and insulin levels High GI: produce high fluctuations in blood
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