Nursing 2 exam 1 study guide.docx - Nursing 2 exam 1 study...

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Nursing 2 exam 1 study guideHiatal Hernia- part of the stomach protrudes through the esophageal hiatus/oS/S- only caused by large herniasHeartburn, belching, difficulty swallowing, chest/abd pain, feeling overly full after meals, vomiting blood or black stoolsoReduce: Avoid eating 2-3 hours before laying down, small meals, avoid irritating substances and quit smoking.AppendicitisoSymptoms: RLQ pain, low grade fever, nausea, pain at McBurneys point.Mcburney point- right side of abd that is 1/3 of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus.oLabs: CT with WBC count.Peptic Ulcer- type of dyspepsia by the loss of mucosal lining in the stomachoCaused by H pylori or NSAID useoSymptoms- abd pain, pain relief with eating, bloating, pain in the middle of the night, weight loss.oTreatments- antacids, h2 blockers-zantac, Pepcid, Tagamet, cryroprotective agent to coat lining of mucosaoAvoid carbonated drinks, alcohol, caffeine, and spicy, acidic foods. Eat small meals, stop smoking.Diverticulitisocaused by diet low in fiber, processed foods, low activity, constipation. most of the time asymptomatic, however when there is a flare, they will complain of LLQ pain, cramps, nausea, fatigue, low grade fever and changes in LOC, rectal bleeding, increased flatus, abd distention, anorexia.oCT scan-swallow barium, upper endoscopyColon canceroSymptoms: Rectal bleeding, change in bowel habits, sense of incomplete evacuation, abd pain and distension.oDX test- colonoscopy every 3-5 years after age 50.Stool blood tests after age 50.Digital rectal exam every year after age 40.oIrritable bowel syndrome- affects large intestine and causes cramping,abd pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation.Prevent symptoms- change diet, lifestyle and stress.Antidiarrheal meds, anticholinergic meds for pain, lyrica, Neurontin for painUlcerative colitisoToxic megacolon- severe episode with total dilation of the colon.

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