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Running head: PARKINSON’S DISEASE: AN OVERVIEW1Parkinson’s Disease: An OverviewSimon C. KahwajiCalifornia State University, Los AngelesAuthor NoteThis report was prepared for BIO 2020 Section 01
PARKINSON’S DISEASE: AN OVERVIEW2Parkinson’s Disease: An OverviewParkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s. According to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation about 1 million people are diagnosed with PD in the United States, and approximately 60,000 Americans are diagnosed each year. Worldwide there are over 10 million people suffering from this disease. Parkinson’s Disease is a chronic and progressive movement disorder with a cause not yet discovered. However, research has shown that the presence of protein aggregates, Lewy bodies, in the neurons is a major indication of PD. The disease primarily affects the neuromuscular system; the neurons in the brain that control dopamine production die, resulting in reduced control of movement and coordination. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the anatomy and physiology of the system affectedby PD, risk factors, pathology, prognosis, treatment options, and management. With the increasing Parkinson’s disease diagnoses and the unknown cause of it, more research is needed in the field to further understand and control this disease. Figure 1: Synapse
PARKINSON’S DISEASE: AN OVERVIEW3The basic anatomy and physiology of the neuromuscular system includes neurons, neurotransmitters, muscles, and the relationship betweenall of them. A neuron is a specialized cell that transmitschemical messages or impulses throughout the body. Aneuron is composed of a cell body, axon, and dendrites.