lecture 3-8 neural system II

lecture 3-8 neural system II - Chapter 48 (continued)...

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Chapter 48 (continued) – Neural system Learning objectives • Describe the structures of a chemical synapse and explain how they transmit an action potential from one cell to another. • Describe the role of signal transduction pathways in indirect synaptic transmission. • Explain how excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) affect the postsynaptic membrane potential. • Define summation and distinguish between temporal and spatial summation. Explain how summation applies to EPSPs and IPSPs. • Describe the symptoms and brain pathology that characterize Alzheimer’s disease. • Describe the symptoms and proposed causes of Parkinson’s disease. • Know that many kinds of depression are treatable illnesses.
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Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses – there are two types of synapses In an electrical synapse Electrical current flows directly from one cell to another via intercellular gap junctions Chemical synapses are the vast majority of synapses Different neurotransmitter molecules and their receptors provide for variable responses. Transmission can be Direct Indirect
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Direct Synaptic Transmission The process of direct synaptic transmission Involves the binding of neurotransmitters to ligand-gated ion channels
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Neurotransmitter binding causes the ion channels to open, generating a postsynaptic potential Figure 48.17 Presynaptic cell Postsynaptic cell Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter Presynaptic membrane Postsynaptic membrane Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel Synaptic cleft Ligand-gated ion channels Na + K + Ligand- gated ion channel Postsynaptic membrane Neuro- transmitter 1 Ca 2+ 2 3 4 5 6
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After its release, the neurotransmitter Diffuses out of the synaptic cleft May be taken up by surrounding cells and degraded by enzymes
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Neurotransmitter binding causes the ion channels to open, generating a postsynaptic potential Postsynaptic potentials fall into two categories: - Excitatory postsynaptic potentials ( EPSP s) (depolarization occurs) - Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (
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lecture 3-8 neural system II - Chapter 48 (continued)...

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