anatomy - The reflex arc Reflex-rapid predictable and involuntary responses to stimuli Reflex arc direct route from a sensory neuron to an interneuron

anatomy - The reflex arc Reflex-rapid predictable and...

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The reflex arc Reflex-rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli Reflex arc- direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector. Types of reflexes and regulation Autonomic reflexes Smooth muscle regulation Heart and blood pressure regulation Regulation of glands Digestive system regulation somatic reflexes Activation of skeletal muscles Central nervous system CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles Four chambers within the brain Filled with cerebrospinal fluid Regions of the brain Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum Cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain Include more than half of the brain mass The surfaces is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) Lobes of the cerebrum Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into lobes Surfaces lobes of the cerebrum Frontal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe
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Specialized areas of the cerebrum Somatic sensory area - receives impulses from the body's sensory receptors Primary motor area- sends impulses to skeletal muscles Broca's area involved in our ability to speak Specialized area of the cerebrum Cerebral area involved in special senses Gustatory area (taste) Visual area Auditory area olfactory area Interpretation areas of the cerebrum speech/language region Language comprehension region General interpretation area Layers of the cerebrum Basal nuclei- internal islands of gray matter Regulates voluntary motor activities by modifying info sent to the motor cortex problems= ie unable to control muscles, spastic, jerky Diencephalon Sits on top of the brain stem Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres Made of three parts Thalamus Hypothalamus epithalamus Thalamus Surrounds the third ventricle The relay station for sensory impulses Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation Hypothalamus Under the thalamus Important autonomic nervous system center Helps regulate body temperature Controls water balance
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Regulates metabolism An important part of the limbic system (emotions) The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus Epithalamus Forms of the roof of the third ventricle Houses of the pineal body (an endocrine gland) Includes the choroid plexus - orms cerebrospinal fluid Cerebral edema Swelling fro the infllammatory response May compress and kill brain tissue Spinal cord Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of the T12 Below T12 is the cauda equina (collection of spinal nerves) Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions Spinal cord anatomy Exterior white matter - conduction tracts Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies
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