1301 Outline 11(5).doc - Lecture 11 Outline and COMPLETE notes The Impending Political Crisis I North South economic cultural differences II

1301 Outline 11(5).doc - Lecture 11 Outline and COMPLETE...

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Lecture 11 Outline and COMPLETE notes The Impending Political Crisis I. North & South: economic & cultural differences II. Kansas-Nebraska Act & Birth of Republican Party A. Stephen Douglas’ KS-NB bill B. Reaction to KS-NB Act C. Whigs fall; Republican Party born D. “Bleeding Kansas” & “Bleeding Sumner” E. Election of 1856 III. Emergence of Abraham Lincoln IV. Road to Disunion, 1856-1860 A. precondition B. Dred Scott decision, 1857 C. Lecompton Constitution, 1857-58 D. John Brown’s raid, October 1859 Page 1 of 9
THE IMPENDING CRISIS, 1854-1860 Economic and Cultural Differences By 1854, the differences between the two sections were more than political.Each section viewed the other as its polar opposite economically and culturally – no longer had anything in common.Each side believed its own basic beliefs, values, and economic and labor systems were superior, and incompatible with those of the other section.Northern EconomyAlthough the Old Northwest (Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois) was still largely agricultural, the northeast had been industrializing at a steady rate since the late 1700s. Textile mills produced cloth and factories were now producing sewing machines, firearms, furniture, and pocket watches.Railroads connected the Old Northwest to the northeast by the 1850s.Improvements in technology and economic growth went hand-in-hand. Some wage laborers struggled in poverty (especially in NYC), but many northern white men and ethnic immigrants alike were able to work their way up the socioeconomic ladder and improve their standard of living.In the 1840s and 1850s, 4 million immigrants from northern and western Europe flocked to northern cities to take part in the North’s growing industrial economy. Almost a million of these immigrants to the North fled Ireland in the latter half of the 1840s to escape starvation caused by the Great Irish Potato Famine.Northerners’ views of the SouthBy the 1850s, most northerners looked down on slavery and the rest of the South’s way of life. Many northerners believed slavery kept white laborers at the lowest level of society; it deprived them of the opportunity to achieve upward mobility. Northerners believed only large cotton plantation owners experiencedprosperity in the South. Northerners believed the South was controlled by something they referred to as a “Slave Power”– a group of wealthy elite slaveholder/planter politicians who dominated the South and sought to use the federal government to extend slavery into the new parts of the nation. This, and the alleged lack of opportunity for all white men, northerners felt, made the South anti-democratic, economically stagnant, and backward.Northerners believed theirown ideals of equality of opportunity for all white men and industrial progress werethe realAmerican ideals.Southern EconomyEconomic growth occurred in the South, too – but on a different basis than in the North.As the price of cotton climbed throughout the 1800s, due to huge demand from Great Britain and northeastern textile mills in the USA, so did southern planters’ production of that lucrative cash crop. The prices of slaves rose along with the price of cotton. Page 2 of 9

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