lecture 4-12 endocrine sys II

lecture 4-12 endocrine sys II - Chapter 45(continued...

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Chapter 45 (continued) – Endocrine system Learning objectives: • Describe the roles prostaglandins as an example of local regulators (paracrines) • Explain the role of tropic hormones • Explain the structure/functions of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland • Know the functions of the pituitary hormones of the anterior and posterior lobes. • Know the effects of the hormones of the … - thyroid gland - parathyroid glands - adrenal glands - pineal gland
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Paracrine Signaling by Local Regulators – Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are found in virtually all tissues and organs. They are synthesized in the cell from the essential fatty acids. Effects of various prostaglandins include: vascular smooth muscle constriction mediate inflammation spinal neurons - intensifying pain. calcium movement, hormone regulation and cell growth control. In platelets : thromboxane causes vascular constriction and platelet aggregation. Prostacyclin comes from cells in the blood vessel walls and is antagonistic to thromboxane. Aspirin-like drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins (minimizes clotting) Prostaglandins are potent but have a short half-life before being inactivated and excreted.
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Specialized nerve cells known as neurosecretory cells release neurohormones into the blood The hypothalamus, a region of the lower brain contains different sets of neurosecretory cells Many of the hormones produced by the hypothalamus are tropic hormones .
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