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The Taiping Rebellion:•before the Opium trade, the Chinese government had a large surplus of silver •taxes were paid by peasants in copper•it had a defined rate of exchange with as silver•silver leaving China exceeded income the exchange rate •this was the exchange rate between copper of the peasants and the silver of the tax collector•it was subject to dramatic inflation•this affected the ability of the peasants to pay their taxes.Rebellion in the North & South.•a dangerous situation arose for the Qing due to a number of factors:•a) the decline of the economy of the peasants•b) famine, •c) population pressure•d) scarcity of resources, •e) government corruption, •f) heavy taxes••the cause of the Nubian Rebellion of 1853 to 1868 was the destruction caused by the flooding•this was the flooding of theYellow river in 1853 & 1855. ••the government was not able to respond to this disaster due to its depleted finances•the lack of response triggered the revolt.••the Panthay Rebellion (1856-1873) started in Yunnan Province•in that area there was fighting •the fights were between the Hui (Chinese Muslims) and the Han Chinese migrants
•they fought over mining resources•then it turned itself into an ethnic uprising against testate.••more was the Muslim Rebellion in Xinjiang, Shanxi, and Gansu (1862-1877•this was a continuation of issues of territorial conquests of the early & mid-Qing period.The Kingdom of Heavenly Peace•the more devastating rebellion was the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864•it was unusual because it was based on a radical form of Christianity.••Hong Xiuquan, the founder of the rebellion came from a modest peasant family near Canton.•he wanted to climb the social ladder but he kept failing the imperial examinations•then had a nervous breakdown.••after his third failure he had a number of hallucinatory visions •in the visions an old man told him that people had stopped worshipping him •he also told Hong they the people were worshipping demons instead.••Hong failed the examination a fourth time•then he began reading some Christian treatise he had come home with seven years earlier.•the book offered him clues on how to interpret his visions.••he came to believe that the old man was God, the Father•he also came to believe he himself (Hiong) was the brother of Jesus Christ•he immediate began to form a religious sect •it was to be dedicated to the destruction of the idols (demons)•these demons would be interpreted as the Manchus - the “foreign” rulers••according to Hong the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace would be established•but first the “foreign” Manchu rule had to be destroyed.