CH305 Chapter 6 notes part 1

CH305 Chapter 6 notes part 1 - CH305 Chapters 5 to 6...

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CH305 Chapters 5 to 6 additional information: From Chapter 5: Ionic compounds dissolve in water and form IONS. We can give the concentration as a MOLARITY = moles/L. Not ALL compounds are 1:1 ratio: e.g., BaCl 2 As the ionic compound breaks apart into ions (ionizes, or dissociates) we have may have ion concentrations which are different from that of the compound!! Example: e.g., BaCl 2 If we know the moles of BaCl 2 per L (i,e we know [BaCl 2 ] , how are the moles of Ba 2+ and Cl - per L related to this? Spectator Ions Ions which do NOT form precipitates in a precipitation reaction are called “SPECTATOR IONS” Ions which are NOT involved in an acid-base reaction* are ALSO called “SPECTATOR IONS” *(see later) EXAMPLE: Mix Silver Nitrate and Sodium Chloride. In the first solution we have: ___ and ____ In the second solution we have: ___ and ___ A precipitate of _____ forms. This means ___ and ___ are SPECTATOR IONS. The TOTAL IONIC EQUATION is: CH 305 Chapter 6 part 1: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain What’s an Acid? ± Acids turn litmus RED ± Acidic solutions will conduct electricity ± Acids react with some metals and make H 2(g) ± IF A FOOD ACID (e.g. lemon juice) it will taste sour DON'T EVER test non-food acids this way! Simplest definition: something which breaks apart ( ionizes or dissociates ) to give a negative ion and a positive hydrogen ion. Hydrogen Chloride gas dissolves in water to make HYDROCHLORIC ACID: HCl (g) --> HCl (aq) --> H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) NAKED PROTONS – not really. H + ions and negative ions don’t exist isolated in solutions. Each are surrounded by water molecules. The H + ion (a proton) forms a bond to one of these water molecules to form H 3 O + (aq) This is called a HYDRONIUM ion. NOTE: We often write “H + but we MEAN H 3 O + Your Turn 6.2 page 270
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Naming Acids Know the polyatomic ion list (Table 5.7) from Ch5: Many ACIDS you will see in CH305 can be made using the ANIONS in Table 5.7: Add enough H+’s to balance the anion’s charge. The NAME is derived from the ANION: for “xxxate” the acid would be called “xxxic acid” for “xxxite” the acid would be called “xxxous acid” Binary acids: change the “ide” to “ic acid” Examples HCl __________ HNO 3 : ____________HNO 2 :____________HOCl: ____________ What’s a Base? ± Bases turn litmus BLUE ± Basic solutions will conduct electricity ± Foods which are basic taste bitter DO NOT EVER test non-food bases this way! ± Bases have a slippery feeling (e.g. soap, baking soda) DO NOT test ANY other bases this way! Simplest definition: something which breaks apart ( ionizes or dissociates ) to give a positive ion and a hydroxide ion. Sodium Hydroxide dissolves in water:
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CH305 Chapter 6 notes part 1 - CH305 Chapters 5 to 6...

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