CH305 Chapter 6 notes part 2

CH305 Chapter 6 notes part 2 - CH 305 Chapter 6 part 2:...

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CH 305 Chapter 6 part 2: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain pH - Concentration Calculations Links pH, [H+] or [OH-] with [acid] or [base] with mass. Method: 1. Write equation for acid or base dissociating in water: Acid one or more H + and anion Base one or more OH - and cation. (NH 3 forms NH 4 OH by taking a H + from water) 2. Determine desired [H+] for the acid, or [OH - ] for the base 3. Use 1. and solution volume to find moles of the acid or base 4. Determine the mass of this acid or base Example 1. How many g of NaOH is needed to prepare 500ml of a solution with pH= 10.4? Example 2: SO 3 is an acid anhydride and forms sulfuric acid. Write the balanced equation for this process. If we have burnt enough coal to create 2kg of SO 3 , and ALL of this ends up in 3000L of distilled water, what would be the pH of this pool of sulfuric acid? Acid-Base Reactions (Includes TITRATIONS) Links molarity, balancing equations, stoichiometry, acid-base reactions and pH. Method: 1. Write the balanced reaction. (NOTE: some bases and acids have more than one H + or OH - ) 2. Find amount of the given reactant in moles. (if the pH is given instead this needs another step) 3. Determine how much of the other reactant is needed or how much of a product is formed. Example 1: A 25ml sample of sodium hydroxide is neutralized by 35 ml of sulfuric acid (0.2M). How many moles of NaOH were present in the sample? What was the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution? What would be the pH of each solution before use? Example 2: How much hydrochloric acid would be needed to dissolve a stick of chalk? Assume the chalk is 100% calcium carbonate and weighs 2g. The pH of the acid you are provided is 2.3.
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HAZE is an AEROSOL: very fine particles suspended in the air Eastern US: Coal-burning power plants Western US: Coal-burning power plants AND soil dust, soot from wood burning stoves Haze consists of PM (ash, soot) as well as acidic aerosols created from NO x and SO x . SO x to Haze (equations are review from earlier. . see part 1) Burning coal creates sulfur dioxide due to the sulfur in the coal: S (g) + O 2(g) Æ SO 2(g) Sulfur dioxide combines with more oxygen to make sulfur trioxide: 2SO 2(g) + O 2(g) Æ 2SO 3(g) Sulfur dioxide combines with water in humid air to make sulfuric acid : SO 3(g) + H 2 O (l) Æ H 2 SO 4(aq) Sulfur trioxide is hygroscopic: it seeks out and readily absorbs water. Result: tiny particles of sulfuric acid, which coagulate, Æ an AEROSOL of sulfuric acid, particles ~1 µ m across Haze SCATTERS (reflects) light --> reduced visibility This now affects many US national parks. East: 20miles (as bad as 1 mile) West: 100miles or less Haze particles stay suspended : travel hundreds of miles, and get inside buildings. They can last up to ~five days. For health effects: see later “Sulfate Aerosols Sulfuric acid contains the sulfate ion SO 4 2- Sulfuric acid may also react with ammonia (i.e., ammonium hydroxide) and form ammonium sulfate or ammonium hydrogen
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course CH 305 taught by Professor Sutcliffe during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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CH305 Chapter 6 notes part 2 - CH 305 Chapter 6 part 2:...

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