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CH305 Chapter 9 notes

CH305 Chapter 9 notes - CH305 Chapter 9 Plastics and...

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CH305 Chapter 9: Plastics and Polymers: are everywhere! are NATURAL and SYNTHETIC are made from non-renewable and (now sometimes) renewable materials Petroleum non-renewable resource 3% of petroleum is used as a raw material (some of this is for pharmaceuticals) “Big Six” all made from petroleum New Renewable Sources Cargill Dow: “Nature Work PLA” from corn glucose DuPont: “Sonora”-family of polymers from corn based substances What is a Polymer? POLYMER: chain of covalently bonded atoms. Can be thousands of atoms long! (hence term ‘macromolecule’ applies) MONOMER: “Repeat Unit” of the polymer “mono” = one, “poly” = many, “meros” = unit What is a Plastic? “capable of being molded” (used as a noun or adjective) PLASTICS are SYNTHETIC polymers. Other materials may have plastic properties . NOT ALL POLYMERS are PLASTICS! Some polymers occur naturally. The “Big Six” Over 60,000 synthetic polymers exist Of these, in the US:~ 76% made and used are of just SIX types Don’t all use different monomers! All are colorless! The “Big Six” : LDPE : Low-Density Polyethylene Monomer: Soft, flexible, unreactive Plastic bags, bubble wrap, electrical insulation, ‘dispenser’ type bottles. . The “Big Six” : HDPE : High-Density Polyethylene Monomer: stiffer than LDPE stiff plastic bags, milk jugs. . The “Big Six” : PVC : Polyvinyl chloride Monomer: rigid, strong, resists solvents and oils pipe, hose, shower curtains
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The “Big Six” : PS : Polystyrene Monomer: very clear, rigid, dissolves in many solvents styrofoam insulation. . AND drinking glasses The “Big Six” : PP : Polypropylene Monomer: rigid, strong, shiny, impermeable battery cases, carpets, bottle caps The “Big Six” : PET Polyethylene Teraphthalate Monomer: (note there are TWO…) transparent, strong, impervious to gases soda bottles, clothing (recycled!) Functional Groups A distinctive arrangement of atoms impart a characteristic chemical property methyl -CH 3 ester -COOC- hydroxyl -OH amine -NH 2 carboxylic acid -COOH phenyl -C 6 H 5 Thermal Properties: THERMOPLASTIC: can be melted and shaped repeatedly, tend to be flexible The Big Six are ALL thermoplastic. THERMOSETTING:
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CH305 Chapter 9 notes - CH305 Chapter 9 Plastics and...

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