Unformatted text preview: Multiple choice, T/F, and fill in the blank:
Peers taught, powerpoint, things in chapter are fair game
Big vocab words from each chapter: regardless of class time spent on it
4 big motivations of dress: what are they what do they mean
Status: high or low,
Protection: from nature, others, etc.
Modesty: covering of body, not same across cultures
Decoration: self expression, use of color, shape, line
Difference of the way clothes are put together
Draping (warmer, tucked and pinned) vs. tailoring (cooler)
New inventions/tech that have shifted and changed how we learn/ produce fashion
Sewing machine, cameras/photography, movies/talkies
Where people lived:
Urbanization (more people, smaller living quarters), cars, driving changed fashion
Where to get fashion info:
Style leaders: Empress Éugenie, Queen Victoria
Fashion dolls (***)
Mourning for Albert after his death, wore black all the time and changed it for others because
she was a fashion leader
Goddy(i think this is suppose to be ‘Godey’) and petersons
Slaves in the south: variations of dress between those enslaved and those who owned
slaves, within slaves: house slaves (level down from master, still dressed up though) vs field
slaves (rough clothing easy, to work in)
Charles Worth: haute couture, founded the Chambre Syndicale de la Parisienne, governing
body and being a fashion house in haute couture (created fashion houses), started the idea
Paul Poiret: start of designer as we know it , hobble skirt, did away with corsets in his
Fortuny: pleats- basically trademarked, famous dress (delphos gown- pleats and rolled up)
Empire waistline under breast, romantic waist shifts down and silhouette less up and down
and more hourglass type
Crinoline: very exaggerated, hoop skirt
Edwardian and bustle: shifts to the back and creates an s shape for the body, hair also
mimics that (pompadour, mimics shirt and clothing)
Sleeve shift: leg of mutton
Similar in romantic period, hourglass, tapered in at waist, elaborate
Silhouette: slims down to style more popular now, loose tuck at waist
Mens wear: mackintosh jacket (original rain jacket, named after person who made it), norfolk jacket (belted sport jacket), sac jacket (still used today, 2 outer pockets, business casual
blazer), suspenders and knickers, (undergarments: knickerbockers)
Womens: bloomers, bras, camisoles, bonnet, snood, gowns named for usage or time of day,
Art nouveau: floral, line, patterns, natural colors, direct correlation with fashion and interiors
Arts and crafts
Relationship to clothes: influences fashion which influences interiors, Zeitgeist (complex
mixture of social, psychological, and aesthetic factors, spirit of the times)
BIG KEY WORDS AND STUFF FROM EACH TIME PERIOD:
The Romantic Period:
Westward expansion in US; cultivation of cotton (slavery)
Stylish to look unhealthy
Machines for lace production becoming more sophisticated
Not yet enough ready-to-wear clothing for women; some for men
Godey’s Lady Book and Peterson’s Magazine
Empire waistline moving lower
Marie sleeve, demi-gigot sleeve, gigot/leg-of-mutton sleeve, imbecile/idiot sleeve
A la chinoise hair (pulling back and side hair into knot at top of head while hair at forehead
and temples was curled)
Gilet corsage (like man’s waistcoat)
Bishop sleeve, sleeve en bouffant, Victoria sleeve
Bunch of different types of mantles
Mittens and parasols
Chatelaines (ornamental chains used to hang stuff) and Jeanette (hair or ribbon to suspend
cross/pearls around neck)
Men’s silhouette hourglass
Newmarket (riding coat), Chesterfield, Mackintosh
Top hats, gibus hat, derby hat
Slave attire dependent on where one worked
Less straight up and down and more hourglass
The Crinoline Period:
House of Worth
Hoop skirt and very exaggerated
Levi’s and Gold Rush
Ideal woman= Queen Victoria, Empress Eugenie
Women’s rights movement
Civil War→ spread of mechanization and factory system
Spreading and improvement of sewing machines
Women’s clothing fit closely through bodice to waist and then widened into full round or dome shape
Cage crinoline or hoopskirt
Garibaldi blouse, Zouave jackets, raglan sleeves
Two-piece evening dresses
Snood (net for daytime hair)
Sack jacket, reefers/pea jackets
Widened legs (for men) after 1860
Mustaches (1850s) and Stetson hats
hoop→ dome → pyramidal shaped skirts
The Bustle Period and the Nineties:
Women entering workforce and sports (especially cycling)
Leg of mutton sleeve
American frontier closing; lots of labor strife and poverty
Prince of Wales popular, but Queen was too old-fashioned
City life growing (first apartment building in NYC in 1870)
Weighting and mercerizing
More ready-to-wear clothing
pre-Raphaelite movement, Aesthetic movement, Art Nouveau
3 different types of bustles
1870-1878→ full bustle by manipulating drapery at back of skirt
1878-1883→ sheath/cuirass bodice; fullness dropped below hips; semi-circular frame
1884-1890→ large, rigid, shelf-like bustles
Combination (chemise and drawers)
Camisoles, shirtwaist, tailor-mades
Bathingsuits and cycling costumes
Union suits (drawers and undervests in one garment)
Norfolk jacket (belted sport jacket)
Homburgs (fedora popularized by Prince of Wales)
Deerstalker cap (Sherlock Holmes)
Changing of mourning and black because of Queen Victoria→ mourning crape
The Edwardian Period and World War I:
Paul Poiret and Mariano Fortuny in haute couture
Women fight for and get right to vote
Sweater, trenchcoat, wristwatch
Fashion magazines, steam and cruise lines, colleges and universities, different jobs
Movies and movie stars Edward after Queen Victoria (ladies’ man)
World War I→ sweaters, zipper outer jacket, trench coat, wristwatches, women in more
Exposition Universalle in Paris
Poiret→ did away with corsets, hobble skirts (very narrow and movement limiting hems),
vivid colors, first to market perfume, didn’t adjust to newer lines
Fortuny→ Delphos gown (drew upon ancient Greek styles)
Duster for driving
Magazines showed “high society;” ready-to-wear allowed normal women to simulate “high
S-shaped silhouette→ empire revival/hobble skirt→ World War I→ post-war styles
Ready-to-wear maternity dresses
Goring (using a number of panels shaped so that they are fitted in some areas and flared in
Pompadour (died down); perms; picture hats; juliet caps
Skirts narrowed and grew shorter
Lots of tunics→ Paul Poiret designed minaret tunic (boned to hold out the skirt in full circle
and worn over narrowest of hobble skirts)
Pullover sweaters (Chanel)
Elizabeth Arden, Madame C.J. Walker
Chemise dress (straight tube dress popular in 1920s) by Jeanne Lanvin
Sports jackets (US)/ lounge jackets (UK)
Four-in-hand ties, ascots
Narrowing of style; looks like what we see men in today
Blazer (usually worn for tennis)
Jodhpurs (trousers fitted closely around lower leg and flaring out above knee) Chapter 12: The Romantic Period 1820-1850
Expression of emotion, sentiment, and feeling were primary. invented the historical novel (Sir
Walter Scott wrote Ivanhoe, and Alexander Dumas wrote three musketeers and the count of
monte cristo.) Loved earlier times like the middle ages, violent emotions.
King George IV to William IV to his niece Queen Victoria, who gave her name to an age (the
Victorian era)- brought prestige back to the monarchy and earned respect and admiration of
the English people.
Bourban monarchy restored in France after the fall of Napoleon (Louis XVIII and then
Charles X king who lacked common sense and wanted to restore royal absolutism and led to
revolution, he abdicated the throne and his grandson took over, and then Louis Napoleonnephew of Bonaparte- was elected president, succeeded in Second Republic/Second
Empire in 1852)
Westward expansion begun in USA, Cultivation of cotton dominated the economy of the
southern states and slavery flourished. Abolitionist societies became the basis for a movement. Although Americans were becoming politically independent of Europe, American
people continued to follow the fashion in dress that originated abroad.
Distinctly unstylish to appear in good health (used rice powder to appear pale, wanted circles
under their eyes), middle class woman expected to be a perfect lady.
Women’s role was increasingly confined to the home. Affluent women were severely limited
in their activities. Required substantial wardrobe of fashionable clothes.
working class women had more accommodating clothes, turned bonnet into sunbonnet, a
practical covering to protect the face and head from the hot sun.
Machines for producing lace had been gradually growing more sophisticated.- lower cost.
ready made clothing for men continued to expand; however women could buy few
ready-made garments other than corsets and cloaks.
source of fashion: women’s magazines. (introduced in Europe during 18th century)
Godey’s Lady’s Book (1830) and Peterson’s Magazine (1842)
Louis Daguerre of France perfected his photographic process, fashionable to sit for their
daguerreotypes, recorded styles, comparison of the idealized fashion plates and artists’
painted portraits with real clothing.
1820-1835: Empire styles to newer Romantic mode: waistline moved downward from just
under the bust to several inches above the anatomical location of the waist. by 1825
women’s dresses had developed large sleeves, and continued to grow larger, and gored
skirts which were widening and becoming gradually shorter. Dress silhouettes placed greater
emphasis on a small waist. Petticoats supported the ever-wider skirts.
Bustles- small down-or bottom-filled pads that tied on around the waist at the back, held out
skirts in back.
dresses identified in magazines according to the time of day or activity intended for.
Morning dresses- most informal, often being made of lingerie-type fabrics such as white
cotton or fine linen with lace or ruffled trimmings. (day dresses, promenade, or walking
dresses and carriage dresses are often indistinguishable one from the other, especially in
puffed at shoulder then attached to a long sleeve fitted to the wrist (mancherons) sometimes
placed at shoulders, Marie sleeve- full to the wrist, but tied in at intervals with ribbons or
bands, Demi-gigot- full from shoulder to elbow, then fitted from elbow to wrist, often with an
extension over the wrist, gigot- also called Leg-of-mutton sleeves full at the shoulder,
gradually decreasing in size to the wrist where they ended in a fitted cuff, Imbecile or idiot
sleeves- extremely full from shoulder to wrist, where they gathered into a fitted cuff. (similar
to that of sleeves used on garments for confining mad persons, strait jacket).
waistlines remained straight with buckled belts or sashes at the waist until about 1833 and
then V-shaped points used. length was either top of the foot, ankle length or shorter and
then stopping at the instep. Also fuller skirts as time went on.
Pelisse-robe: name given to a dress for daytime that was adapted from the pelisse that was
worn outdoors. (sort of a coat dress that closed down the front)
evening dresses differed from daytime dresses in details but not basic silhouette: necklines
lower, sleeves shorter, skirts shorter.
Chemisettes/fillers/tuckers: raised the necklines of daytime dresses, separate from the dress
and worn with different bodices. Pelerines: wide, cavelike collars that extended over the shoulders and down across the
Fichu pelerine: variant of the pelerine, had two wide panels, or lappets, extending down the
front of the dress and passed under the belt.
Santon: a silk cravat worn over a ruff., and a canezou
Hair and Headdresses:
parted down center front, tight curls and pulled into tight knot in back.
à la Chinoise: 1829 style created by pulling back and side hair into a knot at the top of the
head, while hair at forehead and temples was arranged in curls.
day caps, hats usually large brimmed with high, round crowns and large feather and lace
decorations, bonnet styles, one bonnet a capote: had a soft fabric crown and a stiff brim.
many hair ornaments used: jewels, tortoise shell combs, ribbons, flowers, and feathers.
evening: hair ornaments, berets and turbans.
1836-1850: silhouette gradually became more subdued, sleeve was like a balloon that was
deflating, but still fullness was apparent in sleeve, it moved lower on the arm until about
1840 when sleeves became narrower and more closely fitted.
skirts lengthened, and became heavier, bodices generally ended at the waist.
Gilet corsage: made in imitation of a man’s waistcoat.
most sleeves were set low and off the shoulder after 1838.
Bishop sleeve: made with a row of vertical pleats at the shoulder that released into a soft, full
sleeve gathered to a fitted cuff at the wrist, popular until about 1840.
Sleeve en bouffant/en sabot: alternated places of tightness with puffed out expansions.
Victoria: had a puff at the elbow, variant of sleeve en bouffant.
shape of skirts was full and gathered into the waist. Pockets added into skirts.
trimmings included Ruchings: pleated or gathered strips of fabric-flounces, scallops, and
Silhouette of evening dresses was similar to daytime: made with off-the-shoulder necklines
that extended straight across or en coeur, made with a dip at the center, many had berthaswide, deep collars following neckline.
Hair and Headdresses:
parted in the middle, pulled smoothly to the temples were it was arranged in hanging,
sausage-shaped curls or in plaits or with a loop of hair encircling the ears. at the back it was
pulled into a bun or chignon.
adult women also wore small white cotton or linen caps indoors. (bonnets predominantly).
Bavolet: ruffle at the back of the neck to keep the sun off the neck.
to make bonnets more fashionable they often were worn with veils attached to base of the
crown. Drawn bonnets: fashionable bonnet made from concentric circles of metal,
whalebone, or cane and covered in silk.
mantle/shawl-mantle: a short garment rather like a hybrid between a shawl and a short
mantle with points hanging down at either side of the front.
Pelerine-mantle: with a deep cape, coming well over the elbows and having long, broad front
lapels worn over, not under, a belt.
Burnous: a large mantle of about three-quarter length with a hood, the name and style
deriving from a similar garment worn by arabs who lived in middle-east deserts.
Paletot: about knee length and having three capes and slits for the arms Pardessus: a term applied to any of a number of garments for outdoor wear that had a
defined waistline and sleeves and were from one half to three-quarters in length.
stockings, for evening black silk stockings were fashionable
slipper type, square toe after late 1820s
small heels applied in late 1840s, when ribbon sandals and white satin evening boots
in cold weather wore leather shoes or boots with cloth gaiters (a covering for the upper part
of the shoe and the ankle).
Rubber Galoshes: or overshoes were introduced in late 1840s.
gloves, long until second half of the 1830s and then shortened. those cut to cover the palm
and back of the hands but not fingers are called mittens or mitts.
hand carried accessories: reticules, handbags, purses, fans, muffs, and parasols, and
carriage parasols with folding handles.
gold chains (1820-30s)...
View Full Document