CHAPTER 15 outline.docx - Outline for chapter 15 5\/18 CHAPTER 15\"What Is Freedom Reconstruction 18651877 Chapter Study Outline[Introduction Sherman Land

CHAPTER 15 outline.docx - Outline for chapter 15 5/18...

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Outline for chapter 15 5/18CHAPTER 15"What Is Freedom?": Reconstruction, 1865–1877Chapter Study Outline[Introduction: Sherman Land]1.The Meaning of Freedoma.Blacks and the Meaning of Freedomi.African-Americans’ understanding of freedom was shaped by their experience as slaves and observation of the free society around them.ii.Blacks relished the opportunity to demonstrate their liberation from the regulations (significant and trivial) associated with slavery.b.Families in Freedomi.The family was central to the postemancipation black community.ii.Freedom subtly altered relationships within the family.1.Emancipation increased the power of black men within the family.2.Black women withdrew from work as field laborers and house servants to the domestic sphere.c.Church and Schooli.Blacks abandoned white-controlled religious institutions to create churches of their own.ii.Blacks of all ages flocked to the schools established by northern missionary societies, the Freedmen’s Bureau, and groups of ex-slaves.d.Political Freedomi.The right to vote inevitably became central to the former slaves’ desire for empowerment and equality.ii.To demonstrate their patriotism, blacks throughout the South organized Fourth of July celebrations.e.Land, Labor, and Freedomi.Former slaves’ ideas of freedom were directly related to land ownership.1.Many former slaves insisted that through their unpaid labor, they had acquired a right to the land.f.Masters without Slavesi.The South’s defeat was complete and demoralizing.1.Planter families faced profound changes.ii.Most planters defined black freedom in the narrowest manner.g.The Free Labor Visioni.The victorious Republican North tried to implement its own vision of freedom.1.Free laborii.The Freedmen’s Bureau was to establish a working free labor system.h.The Freedmen’s Bureaui.The task of the Bureau—establishing schools, providing aid to the poor and aged, settling disputes, etc.—was daunting, especially since it had fewer than 1,000 agents.ii.The Bureau’s achievements in some areas, notably education and health care, were striking.i.The Failure of Land Reform
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Outline for chapter 15 5/18i.President Andrew Johnson ordered nearly all land in federal hands returned to its former owners.ii.Because no land distribution took place, the vast majority of rural freedpeople remained poor and without property during Reconstruction.iii.Sharecropping came to dominate the cotton South and much of the tobacco belt.iv.Sharecropping initially arose as a compromise between blacks’ desire for land and planters’ desire for labor discipline.
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