Progressive Era Review.docx - Progressive Era Review...

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Progressive Era Review Section 1: Imperialism Important Ideas: Since 1790’s US has focused on western expansion In 1893 Frederick Jackson Turner says the frontier is closed 1890’s marks transition is US history: US becomes a global power Motives for Imperialism: Economic – open up markets abroad, access to cheap raw materials Political – Desire to compete with other nations Strategic/Military – Acquire naval bases o Alfred T. Mahan – “Influence of Sea Power” (need to have powerful navy) Panama Canal Ideological Motives – Idea of the “white man’s burden” o Darwin’s concepts applied to international affairs o Rev. Josiah Strong’s “Our Country” Anglo-Saxon civilization is superior Hawaii: In 1820’s American missionaries go to islands to convert natives to Christianity American sugar and pineapple planters begin buying up land o Dole family In 1887 the United State signs a treaty establishing Pearl Harbor as naval base Various interest in US want to annex Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani advocated that Hawaii should be controlled by the Hawaii people Revolt orchestrated by plantation owners overthrows queen in 1893 Grover Cleveland rejects annexation, William McKinley annexes in 1898 Spanish American War: Cuba still controlled by Spain Spanish General “Butcher” Weyler took controversial steps to stop the rebellion o Reconcentration camps: Many Cubans die of starvation and disease US cares because of US investments in sugar plantations and sympathy for plight of Cuban people o Yellow Journalism: exaggerated reporting De Lome letter: Spanish official disrespects President McKinley Yellow Press blames Spain for destruction of battleship Maine April 1898 US declares war against Spain o US, Cuba, Philippines vs Spain
Teller Amendment: The US have no intention of taking over Cuba Secretary of State John Hay referred to war as “splendid little war” George Dewey crushes Spanish fleet in Manila Bay TR led a volunteer regiment called “Rough Riders” War ends August 1898 Treaty of Paris sparks debate o Gives US Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines Impact of the War: Debate: What should US do with territories? Anti-Imperialist League opposed annexation of the Philippines o Members included Carnegie, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain, etc. McKinley favored expansion and Congress narrowly approves the treaty Cuba: Teller Amendment replaced with Platt Amendment o US can intervene to restore peace and order in Cuba o Cuba could not sign a treaty with a foreign power that limited its independence o US could not maintain naval base at Guantanamo Bay Puerto Rico Foraker Act (1900) – Puerto Rico granted limited degree of popular government o Withheld full self-rule, Congress granted US citizenship in 1917 Status of places such as Puerto Rico and Philippines uncertain o Did rights under US constitution follow the US flag?

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