Notes.docx - BONDS all bonds do best when they settle into...

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BONDS - all bonds do best when they settle into the lowest stress situation possible - nature of bond between atoms is related to the distance between them - how positive and negative they are - Atoms reduce their overall energy and they reach their lowest energy by achieving a blance between attractive and repulsive forces - 2 atoms approach each other the electrons of each atoms are attracted to the protons of the other – Electrostatic force o Like charges repel, opposites attract - Atoms with opposite attractions gets stressed out by the attractive force and tries to relieve the stress by getting closer - The pull is so strong that the stress level or energy rises when the two are separated so they stay close o When they get too close the nuclei repel each other because of their like charges and the energy between them rapidly increases and they both back off just enough to find that perfect distance between them - Bond length – the distance between two nuclei at the point of minimum energy o where the attractive and repulsive forces cancel each other out - the distance at which these two atoms of chlorine reach their minimum energy caught between the attraction of the electrons and the nucleus and the protons repelling the nuclei is the bond length. The energy minimum which we know absolutely is = 239 kj/mole occurs when the distance between the atoms is 0.00199 nanometers o that distance is the bond length of cl2 - because the electrons are attracted to both nuclei in the molecule, they spend the majority of their time in the space between them – covalent bond - covalent bond: a bond formed by atoms SHARING electrons - not all sharing is equal - Electronegativity: the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons - if two atoms in a bond have very different electronegativities, (hydrogen – 2.1 and oxygen 3.5) the electrons are more attracted to the atom with the higher electronegativity - the difference is so great that the electrons spend most of their time around the stronger atom and less time around the other one o this means that the electrons that hang around closer to one side of the bond, it creates a slight negative charge in that area and a slight positive charge around the other atom – polarity - polarity: separation of charges - polarity of the moelcules that these atoms form h2o that makes water the most important molecule on Earth. o Covalent bonds like this, where electrons are attracted to one atom more than the other, causing a separation of charges are – polar covalent bonds - Polar covalent bond: a covalent bond in which the two atoms have different electronegativities, causing a separation of charges - When a covalent bond forms between two identical atoms (cl2) the electrons are distributed evenly – non polar covalent bond - Nonpolar covalent bond: a covalent bond in which the two atoms have identical or very similar electronegativities, so that the charges are distributed evenly
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- Covalent bonds tend to form from non- metal and sometimes metalloids , tthose elements that
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