Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 3: Personality Psychology as Science: Research Methods
MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. According to the text, the goal of a scientific education is a. to teach what is known and how to find out what is not yet known. b. to convey what is known about a subject so it can be applied. c. to train individuals to exclusively rely on deductive reasoning to solve problems. d. All of the above. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 5455 TOP: Scientific Education and Technical Training 2. According to the text, ________ would receive technical training whereas a ________ would receive scientific education. a. pharmacologist; pharmacist b. physician; biologist c. computer scientist; botanist d. research psychologist; clinical psychologist ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 5455 TOP: Scientific Education and Technical Training 4. The effects of irrelevant influences that might lessen your ability to see the trait or state you are trying to measure are called a. measurement error. b. hypothetical constructs. c. aggregating variables. d. psychometrics. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page: 56 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 5. The technical meaning of reliability concerns ________. a. how much measurement error is present in your assessment instrument. b. whether or not an instrument accurately assesses the construct it is intended to measure. c. whether or not an instrument correlates with a similar measure of the same construct. d. whether or not a sample of participants reasonably represents the population of interest ANS: A 6. ANS: D PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability REF: Pages: 5658 PTS: 1 REF: Page: 56 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 7. If you can get the same measurement repeatedly, then your measurement is a. reliable. b. valid. c. significant. d. generalizable. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page: 56 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 9. On Friday, Terence completes the Self-Monitoring Scale and receives a score of 49. On the following Tuesday, he fills out the scale again and receives a score of 28. Terence's scores on the SelfMonitoring Scale do not appear to be ________. a. valid b. reliable c. significant d. free of unwanted biases ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page: 56 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 10. Which of the following is NOT likely to undermine reliability in a measure? a. forgetting to reverse-score items b. the immediate state of the participant c. the state of the experimenter d. aggregation of measurements ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page: 59 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 12.The most important and generally useful way to enhance reliability is a. to use as the smallest possible number of items. b. to measure something that is important. c. to aggregate your measurements. d. to maximize error variance. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page: 59 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 13. Dr. Grant is creating a new measure of shyness, and she decides to include more than one item in her assessment. She believes that using multiple items will lead to a more reliable measure. Dr. Grant is following which principle of measurement? a. multitrait assessment b. content validation c. aggregation d. construct validation ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page: 59 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 14. At the heart of aggregation is the idea that a. random errors cancel each other out. b. random errors never cancel each other out. c. reliable errors cancel each other out. d. a sufficiently precise measure has no reliable error. ANS: A PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability REF: Pages: 5960 15. According to the text, it would be difficult to create a reliable measure of ________. a. attitudes toward paperclips b. attitudes toward TV violence c. attitudes toward casual sex d. attitudes toward research methods ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page: 59 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 16. Which formula in psychometrics quantifies the principle of aggregation? a. Alpha b. Spearman-Brown c. Kappa d. Kaiser-Guttman ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page: 60 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 17. If measurement errors are truly random then they should ________. a. never occur b. not affect the reliability of a measure c. not attenuate the validity of a measure d. sum to zero ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page: 60 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability 19. Validity is the degree to which a measurement a. is consistent and stable. b. provides the same result if repeated. c. actually reflects or measures what you think it does. d. is reliable. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page: 60 TOP: Quality of Data: Validity 20. Jane recently completed a new test that was designed to measure her IQ. She took the test twice and each time received the same score. The test administrator told her that her scores indicate that she is extremely intelligent. However, Jane scored well below average when she completed the StanfordBinet and the WAIS (two well-established intelligence tests). Based on this pattern of results, it appears that the new measure of IQ was a _______. a. valid measure of intelligence. b. valid but unreliable measure of intelligence. c. reliable but not valid measure of intelligence. d. more accurate measure of intelligence than the Stanford-Binet or the WAIS. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 6062 21. Reliability is a(n) ________ condition for validity. a. necessary and sufficient b. necessary but not sufficient c. unnecessary but sufficient d. None of the above. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page: 61 TOP: Quality of Data: Validity 22. According to Cronbach and Meehl's (1955) terminology, psychological attributes such as intelligence and sociability are examples of ________, whereas an IQ test or a questionnaire about sociability are examples of specific tests or measurements. a. constructs b. validity c. L data d. ecological variables ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page: 61 TOP: Quality of Data: Validity 23. Which of the following is the best definition of validity? a. the degree to which an instrument yields consistent scores b. the degree to which measurement error affects scores on an instrument c. the degree to which an instrument actually reflects the construct of interest d. the degree to which an instrument yields dependable scores ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Page: 60 TOP: Quality of Data: Reliability | Quality of Data: Validity 25. Reliability and validity are both aspects of a broader concept called ________. a. factorial invariance b. psychometric integrity c. measurement equivalence d. generalizability ANS: D PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Generalizability REF: Page: 62 26. Which of the following sampling methods affords a researcher the greatest generalizability? a. randomly selecting a sample of introductory psychology students b. randomly selecting a sample of both high school and college students c. recruiting all the executives at a large company to participate d. randomly selecting participants using a random telephone dialing system ANS: D PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Generalizability REF: Page: 63 27. Many researchers study the behavior of college students and then assume that what they learn applies to people in general. This practice may place limits on ________. a. the ecological reliability of their research b. the internal validity of their studies c. the generalizability of their findings over participants d. the construct validity of their studies ANS: C PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Generalizability REF: Page: 63 28. According to the text, the tendency of a group of people who lived at a particular time to differ in some way from those who lived earlier or later is called a _______. a. generational disparity b. cohort effect c. time of measurement effect d. period of history effect ANS: B PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Generalizability REF: Pages: 6465 30. According to the text, which of the following is NOT a threat to the generalizability of personality research? a. More women than men participate in research. b. Participants who show up for research studies are more conventional than potential participants who skip. c. Personality researchers often study multiple cohorts. d. Much personality research is based on samples of college students. ANS: C PTS: 1 TOP: Quality of Data: Generalizability REF: Pages: 6465 32. Which of the following is an ADVANTAGE of the case study method? a. It seems to do justice to the richness of the topic under investigation. b. It is often the only method available to study a particular topic. c. It can be the source of testable hypotheses. d. All of the above are advantages of the case study method. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page: 68 TOP: Case Method 34. 35. Dr. Leslie is interested in studying the relation between mood and willingness to help a stranger. Every participant in her study completes a mood-rating questionnaire and is then given an opportunity to donate money to a homeless stranger. Dr. Leslie is using a(n) ________ design. a. experimental b. correlational c. case study d. repeated measures ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 6972 TOP: An Experimental and a Correlational Study 36. To do an experimental study of the effect of smoking on physical health, we would have to a. find a group of smokers and compare their physical health to a group of non-smokers. b. randomly assign people to a smoking condition or a control condition c. compare the physical health of a heavy smoker to the physical health of a person who has never smoked. d. teach one group of people to adopt good health habits and see if they are more likely to begin smoking than a group of people who have not been taught good health habits. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 6972 TOP: An Experimental and a Correlational Study 37. Random assignment allows researchers to ________. a. ignore problems of measurement b. assume that groups of participants are more or less equivalent on pre-existing conditions c. ignore ethical constraints on research d. control for selective attrition ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 7273 TOP: An Experimental and a Correlational Study 38. A disadvantage of the experimental method is that a. it can create levels of a variable that are unlikely or impossible in real life. b. experiments cannot answer some research questions for ethical reasons. c. the researcher can never be completely sure exactly what is causing the observed effects. d. All of the above. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 7475 TOP: Comparing the Experimental and Correlational Methods 39. The only difference between the experimental and correlational methods is that in the experimental method the presumed causal variable is ________, whereas in the correlational method the same variable is ________. a. externally derived; internally derived b. significant; important c. manipulated; measured d. reliable; valid ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 6972 TOP: Comparing the Experimental and Correlational Methods 40. If test scores go down as anxiety goes up, then a. test scores and anxiety are positively correlated. b. test scores and anxiety are negatively correlated. c. test scores and anxiety are unrelated. d. the correlation between test scores and anxiety must be 1.0. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page: 72 TOP: An Experimental and a Correlational Study 41. The most touted advantage of the experimental method is that a. it allows the assessment of causality. b. it allows the study of naturally occurring individual differences that already exist in the participants. c. participants are always randomly sampled from the general population. d. All of the above. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 7273 TOP: Comparing the Experimental and Correlational Methods 46. If a psychologist describes a research result as statistically significant, what does the psychologist typically mean? a. b. c. d. The result is important. The results are large and dramatic. The results were unlikely to have occurred by chance. The results will likely revolutionize the field. PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 7779 ANS: C TOP: Effect Sizes 47. Which of the following have NOT been discussed as problems with practice of null-hypothesis significance testing? a. A statistically significant result is not necessarily important or meaningful. b. The smaller the sample size, the easier it is to find a significant effect. c. The criterion for a significant result is arbitrary. d. All of the above are problems with null-hypothesis significance testing. ANS: B PTS: 1 TOP: Significance Testing REF: Pages: 7779 48. Imagine that a researcher conducts a study and finds a statistically significant correlation between eating pizza and aggression. However, there is no real association between eating pizza and aggression in nature. What kind of error has this researcher made? a. Type I error b. Type II error c. Type III error d. Correlational error ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page: 79 TOP: Significance Testing 49. Imagine a researcher conducts a study and FAILS to find a statistically significant correlation between exercise and weight loss. However, there is a real association between exercise and weight loss in nature. What kind of error has this researcher made? a. Type I error b. Type II error c. Type III error d. Correlational error ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Page: 79 TOP: Significance Testing 51. Imagine that you could draw a line through the points on a scatter plot depicting the relation between X and Y that slope upwards from left to right. Which of the following is a possible value for the correlation coefficient that you would compute from these data? a. 1.0 b. 0.5 c. 0 d. 1.0 ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page: 80 TOP: Calculating Correlations 52. Using the Binomial Effect Size Display, if there is a correlation of +.30 between drinking alcohol and the likelihood of having a car accident, then out of 100 people who drink you would expect ________ of them to have an accident. a. b. c. d. 100 45 90 65 REF: Pages: 8285 ANS: D PTS: 1 TOP: The Binomial Effect Size Display 54. A researcher computes a correlation coefficient between variables X and Y using a handheld calculator. Which of the following values would automatically tell the researcher that he made a mistake? a. 2.50 b. 0.75 c. 0 d. 0.98 ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Page: 80 TOP: Calculating Correlations 55. A number between 1 and +1 that indexes the association between any two variables is called a. a significance level. b. the probability value. c. the alpha level. d. a correlation coefficient. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Page: 80 TOP: Calculating Correlations 56. The Binomial Effect Size Display is a method for illustrating a. heritability coefficients. b. validity coefficients. c. effect sizes. d. personality coefficients. ANS: C PTS: 1 TOP: The Binomial Effect Size Display REF: Pages: 8285 58. Which of the following are ethical issues involved in the research process? a. how research findings are used b. which research topics are studied c. how truthful researchers are when describing their work d. All of the above are ethical issues involved in the research process. ANS: D TOP: Ethics PTS: 1 REF: Pages: 8589 ...
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- Spring '07
- Personality Psychology, Statistical hypothesis testing, researcher, Statistical significance, Effect size