Unformatted text preview: Suzan Uwangue
Study Guide 1 Instructions
For this assignment, you are to insert material from the textbook and class discussions to help
you prepare for the first exam.
You will be graded on the amount of valuable content from the textbook that you contribute: 100
words is the absolute minimum. We have inserted some videos and other links to help you with
some of the questions and to entertain you when you get tired of reading the textbook.
Ch. 1 Psychology and Scientific Thinking
Ch. 13 Social Psychology
Ch. 14 Personality
Ch. 15 Psychological Disorders
Ch. 1 Psychology and Scientific Thinking
How do we distinguish scientific thinking from intuition or common sense?
● Scientific thinking refines our initial observations, subjecting them to stringent tests to
determine whether they’re accurate. Common sense is our gut intuition about how social
Watch the following video to hear Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman discuss how people
This video and your textbook emphasize how behavioral outcomes are multiply determined. Yet
we often make inferences based on only one factor. That is, we mistakenly assume one thing
(e.g., vaccines) has the potential to explain something else (e.g., autism) Why are we prone to
making such shortcuts in our everyday reasoning?
● We make shortcuts in our everyday reasoning because we hold differents bias that help
confirm their bias.
What sorts of biases do humans have that may impede their ability to reason logically or
● Cultural bias and individual bias may impede humans ability to think logically or
What is naive realism? How do visual illusions provide clear-cut evidence of naive realism?
● Naïve realism is the belief that we see the world precisely as it is. Visual illusions
provide clear cut evidence of naive realism because it’s in their preception.
In addition to the Shepard tables shown in your textbook (Ch 1), check out the Müller-Lyer
Here are some others to check out:
How does naive realism lead us to evaluate information in a biased fashion?
● Naive realism lead us to evaluate information in a biased fashion because we trust our
intuitive perception of the world and ourselves.
What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific hypothesis?
● A scientific theory is an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world,
including the psychological world. A scientific hypothesis is a testable prediction.
Scientific hypotheses need to be falsifiable. What does that mean?
● A scientific hypothesis is needed to be falsifiable when it has outcomes that disproves its
claim or prediction after doing tests.
What is confirmation bias?
● Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny,
dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them.
How does confirmation bias interfere with one’s ability to falsify a hypothesis?
● Confirmation bias dismisses any evidence that doesn’t support the theory.
What is belief perseverance?
● Belief perseverance is the tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence
What role does belief perseverance play in explaining why people endorse pseudoscience?
● Pseudoscience lacks the safeguards against confirmation bias and belief perservance that
What strategies might you use to help you become a more skeptical consumer of information and
less prone to endorsing pseudoscientific beliefs?
Signs of pseudoscience like exaggerated claims, talk of proof instead of evidence and absence of
connectivity of research.
What is an ad hoc immunizing hypothesis? Can you give an example of someone using one?
● Ad hoc immunizing hypthesis is the escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory
use to protect their theory from falsification.
What is patternicity? How does patternicity draw us into pseudoscientific thinking?
● Patternicity is our tendency to see patterns in meaningful data in their absence This would
draw us into pseudoscientific thinking because it helps simplifies the bewildering world.
Another example is conversional
therapy, an often brutal attempt to change the sexual orientations of gay individuals.
What are some of the logical fallacies that allow people to endorse pseudoscience, even when it
comes at great cost in terms of human suffering? ● This science prays on people’ curiosity of otherworldly ways of life. With the people’s
curiosity being so dominating this stem of science feeds into it by going out of their way
to perform experiments no matter the people in the experiment are being subjected to,
people honestly don’t care mainly because of the curiosity that eats away at them.
Critical thinking is widely viewed as a key component of scientific thinking. What is critical
thinking and what skills does in encompass?
● Critical thinking is the hallmark of scientific skepticism. Critical thinking is a set of
skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion. It encompasses the
skill of overcoming our biases.
What are the six principles of scientific thinking emphasized in the textbook? Provide an
example of how to apply each one.
● Ruling out Rival Hypotheses; ex: The results of the study could be due to the fact that
people who received the medication expected to improve.
● Correlation Vs. Causation; ex: Eating ice cream (A) might not cause crime (B). Both
could be due to a third factor (C), such as higher temperatures.
● Falsifiability: example We can’t design a study to disprove this claim.
● Replicability: example We should be skeptical is no other scientific studies have reported
the same findings.
● Extraordinary Claims; example: This extraordinary claim requires more rigorous
evidence than a less remarkable claim, such as the assertion that people remember more
words from the beginning than from the end of the list.
● Occam’s Razor; Ex: It is more likely that your friend’s report is due to a simpler
explanation-his mistaking a Frisbee for a UFO-than to an alien visitation?
What is the correlation-causation fallacy? Can you provide an example?
● Correlation-causation fallacy is when we conclude that a correlation means causation.
A B. It’s possible that variable A causes variable B
B A. It’s possible that variable B causes variable A
Many people forget that there is also a third possibility
C could also cause both A and B
Ch. 13 Social Psychology
People often seem to gravitate towards being a part of a group. What are some of the
explanations for this tendency?
● Humans are social species and gravitate towards small groups. It is believed to be due to
the need-to-belong theory, humans have a biologically based need for interpersonal
connections. When we are deprived of social contact for a considerable length of time, we usually become lonely. Systemic research shows that the threat of social isolation can
lead us to behave in self-destructive ways and can even impair our mental functioning.
What is Social Comparison Theory and how is it used to explain social behavior?
● Social comparison theory is the theory that states states we seek to evaluate our abilities
and beliefs by comparing them with those of others. It helps us to understand ourselves
and our social worlds better.
Provide examples of social contagion. Under what circumstances is social contagion beneficial
and under what circumstances might it be harmful?
What is social facilitation? Can you provide an example of this? What is the opposite of social
An example of social contagion is when we see someone panicing when they a
rodent then we all start jumping because we become fightened. . Social facilitation is the
presence of others and how their presence can effect our performance in certain
situations. An example of this is that bicycle riders obtained faster speeds when racing
along with other bicyclists than when racing against only the clock. Social Disruption is
the opposite of social facilitation for it is the worsening of performance in the presence of
others-occurs on a task we find difficult.
What is an attribution? What are some of the different types of attributions that people make?
● Attribution is when we try to figure out why people, ourselves included, did something.
Fundamental attribution error is when we mistake people’s behavior for who they are.
Explain the fundamental attribution error in terms of our tendency to make dispositional or
situational attributions about events. Provide an example.
● We often believe that what people do define them as a whole when we don’t look at the
other details that are left out of it. We just see the person who is completing the act but
we don’t see what led up to the act and what caused it. An example would be is assuming
incorrectly that a boss in a failing company who fired several of his loyal employees to
save money may be cold hearted and have no emotion.
Solomon Ashe is well known for his studies of conformity. What was he trying to find out?
What were his research methods? What was the main finding? How did his findings shed light
on human social behavior?
● The study is to see how many people conform to go match answers with the group that
they are in. This would be so that no would be ashamed or have to stand out, but they
would merely blend in with the rest. It showed that participants answered intentionally
wrong to answers that are very clear, but they did this because everyone in the group
answered with this answer. This shows that people conform to the majorities opinion and
no one wants to be wrong and if you are wrong its not just you that is wrong it is the
majority of the population that is wrong.
Here is a link to a video on classic experiments in social psychology. Watch this video to review
the material in your textbook: This video discusses (1) the Milgram obedience study, (2) research by Darley & Latane on the
Bystander Effect, and (3) Zimbardo's Stanford Prison study
For each study, explain the purpose of the research and relate the research findings to
contemporary societal issues. What did the researchers want to find out? What was their
(1) the Milgram obedience study
Why do you think 66% test subjects in Milgram's study felt it was okay to go all the way during
the shock therapy?
● 66% of the test subjects believed that it was acceptable because they were conforming
because this was the only way that would allow the kids to learn the correct answers.
They needed this discipline, or they did something to deserve this kind of treatment.
What did Milgram have to say about authority and compliance?
Milgram believed that when people are being told to do something by someone of authority they
are more likely to listen no matter what the issue may be because they are worried for their own
safety at hand and they don’t necessarily think of the consequences of the people at harm.
(2) research by Darley & Latane on the Bystander Effect
Your textbook introduces a lot of terminology in discussing this research e.g., bystander
nonintervention, diffusion of responsibility, social facilitation, social loafing, pluralistic
Come up with a situation where people have to engage in decision making about an ambiguous
situation (e.g., whether to offer help or not). Use these terms to explain people’s behavior (for
good or for bad).
When somebody has falling on the street. Some people will act as a bystander nonintervention
and not help that person because they see a diffusion of responsibility because someone help is
already helping them. Some will just ignore them and that is plurastic ignorance.
What factors may lead people to behave prosocially and exhibit altruism? For some recent acts
● People do some heroic things to impress other people or do it for our own internal
(3) Zimbardo's Stanford Prison study
Why is it important to know about experiments like the Stanford Prison Study? ● It is important to know when we are conforming to what we find is acceptable. . We can’t
have experiments that will c ause physically, mentally and emotionally.
What did Zimbardo mean by “power of the situation” in relation to human behavior?
● With “power of situation” Zimbardo meant that we as people let the situation take control
of us instead of take control of the situation itself. The situation will engross us and we
will let it get the best of us no matter who we were before it.
What is meant by term deindividuation and how does it explain the behavior of the people
playing the roles of prisoners and guards in the Stanford Prison Study?
● The term deindividuation is when people will automatically be given a role and act upon
it. So when given a role you will let that role take over you. The guards and the inmates
were chosen on a lottery and were equal. Once given the roles the guards treated the
inmates as if they had done extremely bad things. They made the inmates lesser than
them, but in reality, they were equal human beings, it had unfortunately been the luck of
the draw. The textbook definition is the tendency of people to engage in atypical behavior
when stripped of their usual identities.
Your textbook introduces the term group think. What is meant by this term?
Groupthink is the emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking. Groups
sometimes become so intent on ensuring that everyone agrees with everyone else that they lose
their capacity to evaluate issues objectively.
How does group polarization come about and what makes it dangerous?
● Group polarization occurs when group discussion strengthens the dominant position held
by individual group members. It can be destructive when people just jump into decisions
instead of looking at all information first before making rational decisions.
How does the Internet contribute to group polarization?
● Social media is a big industry that contributes to group polarization. Rumors spread like
wildfire on social media and with them being true or not true these rumors can be taken
out of hand when people jump to conclusions due to the internet making the conclusions
for them. People cause a frenzy and place issues in society before they even know the
correct facts to the issue.
What factors contribute to aggression?
● -Factors like arousal, alcohol ,drugs, and temperature are also factor that can contribute
to aggression. They can heighten aggression by increasing your mood.
Watch the following video which presents Albert Bandura’s classic Bobo Doll experiment:
What did Bandura conclude from this research about the origins of aggression? Aggression comes from background and environmental factors. The adults who treated
the bobo doll kindely , made the children to treat the bobo doll in the same manner. The adults
who approached the bobo doll with anger, made the children to be violent towards these dolls.
Why are attitudes or beliefs sometimes resistant to change? When people change their attitudes
they may experience cognitive dissonance. What is cognitive dissonance? Can you provide an
example of experiencing cognitive dissonance in your own life?
● Attitudes or beliefs are resistant to change because they re usual what comes naturally to
them. Cognitive dissonance is the theory that we alter o...
View Full Document
- Spring '17