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Unformatted text preview: Suzan​ ​Uwangue Study​ ​Guide​ ​1​ ​Instructions For​ ​this​ ​assignment,​ ​you​ ​are​ ​to​ ​insert​ ​material​ ​from​ ​the​ ​textbook​ ​and​ ​class​ ​discussions​ ​to​ ​help you​ ​prepare​ ​for​ ​the​ ​first​ ​exam. You​ ​will​ ​be​ ​graded​ ​on​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​valuable​ ​content​ ​from​ ​the​ ​textbook​ ​that​ ​you​ ​contribute:​ ​100 words​ ​is​ ​the​ ​absolute​ ​minimum.​ ​ ​We​ ​have​ ​inserted​ ​some​ ​videos​ ​and​ ​other​ ​links​ ​to​ ​help​ ​you​ ​with some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​questions​ ​and​ ​to​ ​entertain​ ​you​ ​when​ ​you​ ​get​ ​tired​ ​of​ ​reading​ ​the​ ​textbook. Ch.​ ​1​ ​Psychology​ ​and​ ​Scientific​ ​Thinking Ch.​ ​13​ ​Social​ ​Psychology Ch.​ ​14​ ​Personality Ch.​ ​15​ ​Psychological​ ​Disorders Ch.​ ​1​ ​Psychology​ ​and​ ​Scientific​ ​Thinking How​ ​do​ ​we​ ​distinguish​ ​scientific​ ​thinking​ ​from​ ​intuition​ ​or​ ​common​ ​sense? ● Scientific​ ​thinking​ ​refines​ ​our​ ​initial​ ​observations,​ ​subjecting​ ​them​ ​to​ ​stringent​ ​tests​ ​to determine​ ​whether​ ​they’re​ ​accurate.​ ​Common​ ​sense​ ​is​ ​our​ ​gut​ ​intuition​ ​about​ ​how​ ​social world​ ​works. Watch​ ​the​ ​following​ ​video​ ​to​ ​hear​ ​Nobel​ ​Prize​ ​winner​ ​Daniel​ ​Kahneman​ ​discuss​ ​how​ ​people think.​​ ​ This​ ​video​ ​and​ ​your​ ​textbook​ ​emphasize​ ​how​ ​behavioral​ ​outcomes​ ​are​ ​multiply​ ​determined.​ ​ ​Yet we​ ​often​ ​make​ ​inferences​ ​based​ ​on​ ​only​ ​one​ ​factor.​ ​ ​That​ ​is,​ ​we​ ​mistakenly​ ​assume​ ​one​ ​thing (e.g.,​ ​vaccines)​ ​has​ ​the​ ​potential​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​something​ ​else​ ​(e.g.,​ ​autism)​ ​Why​ ​are​ ​we​ ​prone​ ​to making​ ​such​ ​shortcuts​ ​in​ ​our​ ​everyday​ ​reasoning? ● We​ ​make​ ​shortcuts​ ​in​ ​our​ ​everyday​ ​reasoning​ ​because​ ​we​ ​hold​ ​differents​ ​bias​ ​that​ ​help confirm​ ​their​ ​bias. What​ ​sorts​ ​of​ ​biases​ ​do​ ​humans​ ​have​ ​that​ ​may​ ​impede​ ​their​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​reason​ ​logically​ ​or scientifically? ● Cultural​ ​bias​ ​and​ ​individual​ ​bias​ ​may​ ​impede​ ​humans​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​think​ ​logically​ ​or scientifically. What​ ​is​ ​naive​ ​realism?​ ​ ​How​ ​do​ ​visual​ ​illusions​ ​provide​ ​clear-cut​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​naive​ ​realism? ● Naïve​ ​realism​ ​is​ ​the​ ​belief​ ​that​ ​we​ ​see​ ​the​ ​world​ ​precisely​ ​as​ ​it​ ​is.​ ​ ​Visual​ ​illusions provide​ ​clear​ ​cut​ ​evidence​ ​of​ ​naive​ ​realism​ ​because​ ​it’s​ ​in​ ​their​ ​preception. In​ ​addition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Shepard​ ​tables​ ​shown​ ​in​ ​your​ ​textbook​ ​(Ch​ ​1),​ ​check​ ​out​ ​the​ ​Müller-Lyer illusion Here​ ​are​ ​some​ ​others​ ​to​ ​check​ ​out: How​ ​does​ ​naive​ ​realism​ ​lead​ ​us​ ​to​ ​evaluate​ ​information​ ​in​ ​a​ ​biased​ ​fashion? ● Naive​ ​realism​ ​lead​ us​ ​to​ ​ ​evaluate​ ​information​ ​in​ ​a​ ​biased​ ​fashion​ ​because​ ​we​ ​trust​ ​our intuitive​ ​perception​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​and​ ​ourselves. What​ ​is​ ​the​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​a​ ​scientific​ ​theory​ ​and​ ​a​ ​scientific​ ​hypothesis? ● A​ ​scientific​ ​theory​ ​is​ ​an​ ​explanation​ ​for​ ​a​ ​large​ ​number​ ​of​ ​findings​ ​in​ ​the​ ​natural​ ​world, including​ ​the​ ​psychological​ ​world.​ ​A​ ​scientific​ ​hypothesis​ ​is​ ​a​ ​testable​ ​prediction. Scientific​ ​hypotheses​ ​need​ ​to​ ​be​ ​falsifiable.​ ​ ​What​ ​does​ ​that​ ​mean? ● A​ ​scientific​ ​hypothesis​ ​is​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​falsifiable​ ​when​ ​it​ ​has​ ​outcomes​ ​that​ ​disproves​ ​its claim​ ​or​ ​prediction​ ​after​ ​doing​ ​tests. What​ ​is​ ​confirmation​ ​bias? ● Confirmation​ ​bias​ ​is​ ​the​ ​tendency​ ​to​ ​seek​ ​out​ ​evidence​ ​that​ ​supports​ ​our​ ​beliefs​ ​and​ ​deny, dismiss,​ ​or​ ​distort​ ​evidence​ ​that​ ​contradicts​ ​them. How​ ​does​ ​confirmation​ ​bias​ ​interfere​ ​with​ ​one’s​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​falsify​ ​a​ ​hypothesis? ● Confirmation​ ​bias​ ​dismisses​ ​any​ ​evidence​ ​that​ ​doesn’t​ ​support​ ​the​ ​theory. What​ ​is​ ​belief​ ​perseverance? ● Belief​ ​perseverance​ ​is​ ​the​ ​tendency​ ​to​ ​stick​ ​to​ ​our​ ​initial​ ​beliefs​ ​even​ ​when​ ​evidence contradicts​ ​them. What​ ​role​ ​does​ ​belief​ ​perseverance​ ​play​ ​in​ ​explaining​ ​why​ ​people​ ​endorse​ ​pseudoscience? ● Pseudoscience​ ​ ​lacks​ ​the​ ​safeguards​ ​against​ ​confirmation​ ​bias​ ​and​ ​belief​ ​perservance​ ​that characterizes​ ​science. What​ ​strategies​ ​might​ ​you​ ​use​ ​to​ ​help​ ​you​ ​become​ ​a​ ​more​ ​skeptical​ ​consumer​ ​of​ ​information​ ​and less​ ​prone​ ​to​ ​endorsing​ ​pseudoscientific​ ​beliefs? Signs​ ​of​ ​pseudoscience​ ​like​ ​exaggerated​ ​claims,​ ​talk​ ​of​ ​proof​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​evidence​ ​and​ ​absence​ ​of connectivity​ ​of​ ​research. What​ ​is​ ​an​ ​ad​ ​hoc​ ​immunizing​ ​hypothesis?​ ​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​give​ ​an​ ​example​ ​of​ ​someone​ ​using​ ​one? ● Ad​ ​hoc​ ​immunizing​ ​hypthesis​ ​is​ ​the​ ​escape​ ​hatch​ ​or​ ​loophole​ ​that​ ​defenders​ ​of​ ​a​ ​theory use​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​their​ ​theory​ ​from​ ​falsification. What​ ​is​ ​patternicity?​ ​ ​How​ ​does​ ​patternicity​ ​draw​ ​us​ ​into​ ​pseudoscientific​ ​thinking? ● Patternicity​ ​is​ ​our​ ​tendency​ ​to​ ​see​ ​patterns​ ​in​ ​meaningful​ ​data​ ​in​ ​their​ ​absence​ ​This​ ​would draw​ ​us​ ​into​ ​pseudoscientific​ ​thinking​ ​because​ ​it​ ​helps​ ​simplifies​ ​the​ ​bewildering​ ​world. ​​ ​ ​Another​ ​example​ ​is​ ​conversional therapy,​ ​an​ ​often​ ​brutal​ ​attempt​ ​to​ ​change​ ​the​ ​sexual​ ​orientations​ ​of​ ​gay​ ​individuals. What​ ​are​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​logical​ ​fallacies​ ​that​ ​allow​ ​people​ ​to​ ​endorse​ ​pseudoscience,​ ​even​ ​when​ ​it comes​ ​at​ ​great​ ​cost​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​human​ ​suffering? ● This​ ​science​ ​prays​ ​on​ ​people’​ ​curiosity​ ​of​ ​otherworldly​ ​ways​ ​of​ ​life.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​people’s curiosity​ ​being​ ​so​ ​dominating​ ​this​ ​stem​ ​of​ ​science​ ​feeds​ ​into​ ​it​ ​by​ ​going​ ​out​ ​of​ ​their​ ​way to​ ​perform​ ​experiments​ ​no​ ​matter​ ​the​ ​people​ ​in​ ​the​ ​experiment​ ​are​ ​being​ ​subjected​ ​to, people​ ​honestly​ ​don’t​ ​care​ ​mainly​ ​because​ ​of​ ​the​ ​curiosity​ ​that​ ​eats​ ​away​ ​at​ ​them. Critical​ ​thinking​ ​is​ ​widely​ ​viewed​ ​as​ ​a​ ​key​ ​component​ ​of​ ​scientific​ ​thinking.​ ​ ​What​ ​is​ ​critical thinking​ ​and​ ​what​ ​skills​ ​does​ ​in​ ​encompass? ● Critical​ ​thinking​ ​is​ ​the​ ​hallmark​ ​of​ ​ ​scientific​ ​skepticism.​ ​Critical​ ​thinking​ ​is​ ​a​ ​set​ ​of skills​ ​for​ ​evaluating​ ​all​ ​claims​ ​in​ ​an​ ​open-minded​ ​and​ ​careful​ ​fashion.​ ​It​ ​encompasses​ ​the skill​ ​of​ ​overcoming​ ​our​ ​biases. What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​six​ ​principles​ ​of​ ​scientific​ ​thinking​ ​emphasized​ ​in​ ​the​ ​textbook?​ ​ ​Provide​ ​an example​ ​of​ ​how​ ​to​ ​apply​ ​each​ ​one. ● Ruling​ ​out​ ​Rival​ ​Hypotheses;​ ​ex:​ ​The​ ​results​ ​of​ ​the​ ​study​ ​could​ ​be​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that people​ ​who​ ​received​ ​the​ ​medication​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​improve. ● Correlation​ ​Vs.​ ​Causation;​ ​ex:​ ​Eating​ ​ice​ ​cream​ ​(A)​ ​might​ ​not​ ​cause​ ​crime​ ​(B).​ ​Both could​ ​be​ ​due​ ​to​ ​a​ ​third​ ​factor​ ​(C),​ ​such​ ​as​ ​higher​ ​temperatures. ● Falsifiability:​ ​example​ ​We​ ​can’t​ ​design​ ​a​ ​study​ ​to​ ​disprove​ ​this​ ​claim. ● Replicability:​ ​example​ ​We​ ​should​ ​be​ ​skeptical​ ​is​ ​no​ ​other​ ​scientific​ ​studies​ ​have​ ​reported the​ ​same​ ​findings. ● Extraordinary​ ​Claims;​ ​example:​ ​ ​This​ ​extraordinary​ ​claim​ ​requires​ ​more​ ​rigorous evidence​ ​than​ ​a​ ​less​ ​remarkable​ ​claim,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​the​ ​assertion​ ​that​ ​people​ ​remember​ ​more words​ ​from​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​than​ ​from​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​list. ● Occam’s​ ​Razor;​ ​Ex:​ ​It​ ​is​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​that​ ​your​ ​friend’s​ ​report​ ​is​ ​due​ ​to​ ​a​ ​simpler explanation-his​ ​mistaking​ ​a​ ​Frisbee​ ​for​ ​a​ ​UFO-than​ ​to​ ​an​ ​alien​ ​visitation? What​ ​is​ ​the​ ​correlation-causation​ ​fallacy?​ ​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​provide​ ​an​ ​example? ● Correlation-causation​ ​fallacy​ ​is​ ​when​ ​we​ ​conclude​ ​that​ ​a​ ​correlation​ ​means​ ​causation. Ex. 1. A​ ​ ​B.​ ​It’s​ ​possible​ ​that​ ​variable​ ​A​ ​causes​ ​variable​ ​B 2. B​ ​ ​A.​ ​It’s​ ​possible​ ​that​ ​variable​ ​B​ ​causes​ ​variable​ ​A Many​ ​people​ ​forget​ ​that​ ​there​ ​is​ ​ ​also​ ​a​ ​third​ ​possibility 3. C​ ​could​ ​also​ ​cause​ ​both​ ​A​ ​and​ ​B Ch.​ ​13​ ​Social​ ​Psychology People​ ​often​ ​seem​ ​to​ ​gravitate​ ​towards​ ​being​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​a​ ​group.​ ​ ​What​ ​are​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the explanations​ ​for​ ​this​ ​tendency? ● Humans​ ​are​ ​social​ ​species​ ​and​ ​gravitate​ ​towards​ ​small​ ​groups.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​believed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​due​ ​to the​ ​need-to-belong​ ​theory,​ ​humans​ ​have​ ​a​ ​biologically​ ​based​ ​need​ ​for​ ​interpersonal connections.​ ​When​ ​we​ ​are​ ​deprived​ ​of​ ​social​ ​contact​ ​for​ ​a​ ​considerable​ ​length​ ​of​ ​time, we​ ​usually​ ​become​ ​lonely.​ ​Systemic​ ​research​ ​shows​ ​that​ ​the​ ​threat​ ​of​ ​social​ ​isolation​ ​can lead​ ​us​ ​to​ ​behave​ ​in​ ​self-destructive​ ​ways​ ​and​ ​can​ ​even​ ​impair​ ​our​ ​mental​ ​functioning. What​ ​is​ ​Social​ ​Comparison​ ​Theory​ ​and​ ​how​ ​is​ ​it​ ​used​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​social​ ​behavior? ● Social​ ​comparison​ ​theory​ ​is​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​states​ ​states​ ​we​ ​seek​ ​to​ ​evaluate​ ​our​ ​abilities and​ ​beliefs​ ​by​ ​comparing​ ​them​ ​with​ ​those​ ​of​ ​others.​ ​It​ ​helps​ ​us​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​ourselves and​ ​our​ ​social​ ​worlds​ ​better. Provide​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​social​ ​contagion.​ ​ ​Under​ ​what​ ​circumstances​ ​is​ ​social​ ​contagion​ ​beneficial and​ ​under​ ​what​ ​circumstances​ ​might​ ​it​ ​be​ ​harmful? What​ ​is​ ​social​ ​facilitation?​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​provide​ ​an​ ​example​ ​of​ ​this?​ ​ ​What​ ​is​ ​the​ ​opposite​ ​of​ ​social facilitation? ● An​ ​example​ ​of​ ​social​ ​contagion​ ​is​ ​when​ ​we​ ​see​ ​someone​ ​panicing​ ​when​ ​they​ ​a rodent​ ​then​ ​we​ ​all​ ​start​ ​jumping​ ​because​ ​we​ ​become​ ​fightened.​ ​.​ ​Social​ ​facilitation​ ​is​ ​the presence​ ​of​ ​others​ ​and​ ​how​ ​their​ ​presence​ ​can​ ​effect​ ​our​ ​performance​ ​in​ ​certain situations.​ ​An​ ​example​ ​of​ ​this​ ​is​ ​that​ ​bicycle​ ​riders​ ​obtained​ ​faster​ ​speeds​ ​when​ ​racing along​ ​with​ ​other​ ​bicyclists​ ​than​ ​when​ ​racing​ ​against​ ​only​ ​the​ ​clock.​ ​Social​ ​Disruption​ ​is the​ ​opposite​ ​of​ ​social​ ​facilitation​ ​for​ ​it​ ​is​ ​the​ ​worsening​ ​of​ ​performance​ ​in​ ​the​ ​presence​ ​of others-occurs​ ​on​ ​a​ ​task​ ​we​ ​find​ ​difficult. What​ ​is​ ​an​ ​attribution?​ ​What​ ​are​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​different​ ​types​ ​of​ ​attributions​ ​that​ ​people​ ​make? ● Attribution​ ​is​ ​when​ ​we​ ​try​ ​to​ ​figure​ ​out​ ​why​ ​people,​ ​ourselves​ ​included,​ ​did​ ​something. Fundamental​ ​attribution​ ​error​ ​is​ ​when​ ​we​ ​mistake​ ​people’s​ ​behavior​ ​for​ ​who​ ​they​ ​are. Explain​ ​the​ ​fundamental​ ​attribution​ ​error​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​our​ ​tendency​ ​to​ ​make​ ​dispositional​ ​or situational​ ​attributions​ ​about​ ​events.​ ​Provide​ ​an​ ​example. ● We​ ​often​ ​believe​ ​that​ ​what​ ​people​ ​do​ ​define​ ​them​ ​as​ ​a​ whole​ ​when​ ​we​ ​don’t​ ​look​ ​at​ ​the other​ ​details​ ​that​ ​are​ ​left​ ​out​ ​of​ ​it.​ ​We​ ​just​ ​see​ ​the​ ​person​ ​who​ ​is​ ​completing​ ​the​ ​act​ ​but we​ ​don’t​ ​see​ ​what​ ​led​ ​up​ ​to​ ​the​ ​act​ ​and​ ​what​ ​caused​ ​it.​ ​An​ ​example​ ​would​ ​be​ ​is​ ​assuming incorrectly​ ​that​ ​a​ ​boss​ ​in​ ​a​ ​failing​ ​company​ ​who​ ​fired​ ​several​ ​of​ ​his​ ​loyal​ ​employees​ ​to save​ ​money​ ​may​ ​be​ ​cold​ ​hearted​ ​and​ ​have​ ​no​ ​emotion. Solomon​ ​Ashe​ ​is​ ​well​ ​known​ ​for​ ​his​ ​studies​ ​of​ ​conformity.​ ​What​ ​was​ ​he​ ​trying​ ​to​ ​find​ ​out? What​ ​were​ ​his​ ​research​ ​methods?​ ​ ​What​ ​was​ ​the​ ​main​ ​finding?​ ​ ​How​ ​did​ ​his​ ​findings​ ​shed​ ​light on​ ​human​ ​social​ ​behavior? ● The​ ​study​ ​is​ ​to​ ​see​ ​how​ ​many​ ​people​ ​conform​ ​to​ ​go​ ​match​ ​answers​ ​with​ ​the​ ​group​ ​that they​ ​are​ ​in.​ ​This​ ​would​ ​be​ ​so​ ​that​ ​no​ ​would​ ​be​ ​ashamed​ ​or​ ​have​ ​to​ ​stand​ ​out,​ ​but​ ​they would​ ​merely​ ​blend​ ​in​ ​with​ ​the​ ​rest.​ ​It​ ​showed​ ​that​ ​participants​ ​answered​ ​intentionally wrong​ ​to​ ​answers​ ​that​ ​are​ ​very​ ​clear,​ ​but​ ​they​ ​did​ ​this​ ​because​ ​everyone​ ​in​ ​the​ ​group answered​ ​with​ ​this​ ​answer.​ ​This​ ​shows​ ​that​ ​people​ ​conform​ ​to​ ​the​ ​majorities​ ​opinion​ ​and no​ ​one​ ​wants​ ​to​ ​be​ ​wrong​ ​and​ ​if​ ​you​ ​are​ ​wrong​ ​its​ ​not​ ​just​ ​you​ ​that​ ​is​ ​wrong​ ​it​ ​is​ ​the majority​ ​of​ ​the​ ​population​ ​that​ ​is​ ​wrong. Here​ ​is​ ​a​ ​link​ ​to​ ​a​ ​video​ ​on​ ​classic​ ​experiments​ ​in​ ​social​ ​psychology.​ ​ ​Watch​ ​this​ ​video​ ​to​ ​review the​ ​material​ ​in​ ​your​ ​textbook:​​ ​ This​ ​video​ ​discusses​ ​(1)​ ​the​ ​Milgram​ ​obedience​ ​study,​ ​(2)​ ​research​ ​by​ ​Darley​ ​&​ ​Latane​ ​on​ ​the Bystander​ ​Effect,​ ​and​ ​(3)​ ​Zimbardo's​ ​Stanford​ ​Prison​ ​study For​ ​each​ ​study,​ ​explain​ ​the​ ​purpose​ ​of​ ​the​ ​research​ ​and​ ​relate​ ​the​ ​research​ ​findings​ ​to contemporary​ ​societal​ ​issues.​ ​ ​What​ ​did​ ​the​ ​researchers​ ​want​ ​to​ ​find​ ​out?​ ​ ​What​ ​was​ ​their research​ ​question? (1)​ ​the​ ​Milgram​ ​obedience​ ​study Why​ ​do​ ​you​ ​think​ ​66%​ ​test​ ​subjects​ ​in​ ​Milgram's​ ​study​ ​felt​ ​it​ ​was​ ​okay​ ​to​ ​go​ ​all​ ​the​ ​way​ ​during the​ ​shock​ ​therapy? ● 66%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​test​ ​subjects​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​it​ ​was​ ​acceptable​ ​ ​because​ ​they​ ​were​ ​conforming because​ ​this​ ​was​ ​the​ ​only​ ​way​ ​that​ ​would​ ​allow​ ​the​ ​kids​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​the​ ​correct​ ​answers. They​ ​needed​ ​this​ ​discipline,​ ​or​ ​they​ ​did​ ​something​ ​to​ ​deserve​ ​this​ ​kind​ of​ ​treatment. What​ ​did​ ​Milgram​ ​have​ ​to​ ​say​ ​about​ ​authority​ ​and​ ​compliance? ​ ​Milgram​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​when​ ​people​ ​are​ ​being​ ​told​ ​to​ ​do​ ​something​ ​by​ ​someone​ ​of​ ​authority​ ​they are​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​listen​ ​no​ ​matter​ ​what​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​may​ ​be​ ​because​ ​they​ ​are​ ​worried​ ​for​ ​their​ ​own safety​ ​at​ ​hand​ ​and​ ​they​ ​don’t​ ​necessarily​ ​think​ ​of​ ​the​ ​consequences​ ​of​ ​the​ ​people​ ​at​ ​harm. (2)​ ​research​ ​by​ ​Darley​ ​&​ ​Latane​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Bystander​ ​Effect Your​ ​textbook​ ​introduces​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​terminology​ ​in​ ​discussing​ ​this​ ​research​ ​e.g.,​ ​bystander nonintervention,​ ​diffusion​ ​of​ ​responsibility,​ ​social​ ​facilitation,​ ​social​ ​loafing,​ ​pluralistic ignorance. Come​ ​up​ ​with​ ​a​ ​situation​ ​where​ ​people​ ​have​ ​to​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​decision​ ​making​ ​about​ ​an​ ​ambiguous situation​ ​(e.g.,​ ​whether​ ​to​ ​offer​ ​help​ ​or​ ​not).​ ​ ​Use​ ​these​ ​terms​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​people’s​ ​behavior​ ​(for good​ ​or​ ​for​ ​bad). When​ ​somebody​ ​has​ ​falling​ ​on​ ​the​ ​street.​ ​Some​ ​people​ ​will​ ​act​ ​as​ ​a​ ​bystander​ ​nonintervention and​ ​not​ ​help​ ​that​ ​person​ ​because​ ​they​ ​see​ ​a​ ​diffusion​ ​of​ ​responsibility​ ​because​ ​someone​ ​help​ ​is already​ ​helping​ ​them.​ ​Some​ ​will​ ​just​ ​ignore​ ​them​ ​and​ ​that​ ​is​ ​plurastic​ ​ignorance. What​ ​factors​ ​may​ ​lead​ ​people​ ​to​ ​behave​ ​prosocially​ ​and​ ​exhibit​ ​altruism?​ ​ ​For​ ​some​ ​recent​ ​acts of​ ​heroism:​​ ​ ● People​ ​do​ ​some​ ​heroic​ ​things​ ​to​ ​impress​ ​other​ ​people​ ​or​ ​do​ ​it​ ​for​ ​our​ ​own​ ​internal satisfaction. (3)​ ​Zimbardo's​ ​Stanford​ ​Prison​ ​study Why​ ​is​ ​it​ ​important​ ​to​ ​know​ ​about​ ​experiments​ ​like​ ​the​ ​Stanford​ ​Prison​ ​Study? ● It​ ​is​ ​important​ ​to​ ​know​ ​when​ ​we​ ​are​ ​conforming​ ​to​ ​what​ ​we​ ​find​ ​is​ ​acceptable.​ ​.​ ​We​ ​can’t have​ ​experiments​ ​that​ ​will​ ​c​ ​ause​ ​ ​physically,​ ​mentally​ ​and​ ​emotionally. What​ ​did​ ​Zimbardo​ ​mean​ ​by​ ​“power​ ​of​ ​the​ ​situation”​ ​in​ ​relation​ ​to​ ​human​ ​behavior? ● With​ ​“power​ ​of​ ​situation”​ ​Zimbardo​ ​meant​ ​that​ ​we​ ​as​ ​people​ ​let​ ​the​ ​situation​ ​take​ ​control of​ ​us​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​take​ ​control​ ​of​ ​the​ ​situation​ ​itself.​ ​The​ ​situation​ ​will​ ​engross​ ​us​ ​and​ ​we will​ ​let​ ​it​ ​get​ ​the​ ​best​ ​of​ ​us​ ​no​ ​matter​ ​who​ ​we​ ​were​ ​before​ ​it. What​ ​is​ ​meant​ ​by​ ​term​ ​deindividuation​ ​and​ ​how​ ​does​ ​it​ ​explain​ ​the​ ​behavior​ ​of​ ​the​ ​people playing​ ​the​ ​roles​ ​of​ ​prisoners​ ​and​ ​guards​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Stanford​ ​Prison​ ​Study? ● The​ ​term​ ​deindividuation​ ​is​ ​when​ ​people​ ​will​ ​automatically​ ​be​ ​given​ ​a​ ​role​ ​and​ ​act​ ​upon it.​ ​So​ ​when​ ​given​ ​a​ ​role​ ​you​ ​will​ ​let​ ​that​ ​role​ ​take​ ​over​ ​you.​ ​The​ ​guards​ ​and​ ​the​ ​inmates were​ ​chosen​ ​on​ ​a​ ​lottery​ ​and​ ​were​ ​equal.​ ​Once​ ​given​ ​the​ ​roles​ ​the​ ​guards​ ​treated​ ​the inmates​ ​as​ ​if​ ​they​ ​had​ ​done​ ​extremely​ ​bad​ ​things.​ ​They​ ​made​ ​the​ ​inmates​ ​lesser​ ​than them,​ ​but​ ​in​ ​reality,​ ​they​ ​were​ ​equal​ ​human​ ​beings,​ ​it​ ​had​ ​unfortunately​ ​been​ ​the​ ​luck​ ​of the​ ​draw.​ ​The​ ​textbook​ ​definition​ ​is​ ​the​ ​tendency​ ​of​ ​people​ ​to​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​atypical​ ​behavior when​ ​stripped​ ​of​ ​their​ ​usual​ ​identities. Your​ ​textbook​ ​introduces​ ​the​ ​term​ ​group​ ​think.​ ​ ​What​ ​is​ ​meant​ ​by​ ​this​ ​term? Groupthink​ ​is​ ​the​ ​emphasis​ ​on​ ​group​ ​unanimity​ ​at​ ​the​ ​expense​ ​of​ ​critical​ ​thinking.​ ​Groups sometimes​ ​become​ ​so​ ​intent​ ​on​ ​ensuring​ ​that​ ​everyone​ ​agrees​ ​with​ ​everyone​ ​else​ ​that​ ​they​ ​lose their​ ​capacity​ ​to​ ​evaluate​ ​issues​ ​objectively. How​ ​does​ ​group​ ​polarization​ ​come​ ​about​ ​and​ ​what​ ​makes​ ​it​ ​dangerous? ● Group​ ​polarization​ ​occurs​ ​when​ ​group​ ​discussion​ ​strengthens​ ​the​ ​dominant​ ​position​ ​held by​ ​individual​ ​group​ ​members.​ ​It​ ​can​ ​be​ ​destructive​ ​when​ ​people​ ​just​ ​jump​ ​into​ ​decisions instead​ ​of​ ​looking​ ​at​ ​all​ ​information​ ​first​ ​before​ ​making​ ​rational​ ​decisions. How​ ​does​ ​the​ ​Internet​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​group​ ​polarization? ● Social​ ​media​ ​is​ ​a​ ​big​ ​industry​ ​that​ ​contributes​ ​to​ ​group​ ​polarization.​ ​Rumors​ ​spread​ ​like wildfire​ ​on​ ​social​ ​media​ ​and​ ​with​ ​them​ ​being​ ​true​ ​or​ ​not​ ​true​ ​these​ ​rumors​ ​can​ ​be​ ​taken out​ ​of​ ​hand​ ​when​ ​people​ ​jump​ ​to​ ​conclusions​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​internet​ ​making​ ​the​ ​conclusions for​ ​them.​ ​People​ ​cause​ ​a​ ​frenzy​ ​and​ ​place​ ​issues​ ​in​ ​society​ ​before​ ​they​ ​even​ ​know​ ​the correct​ ​facts​ ​to​ ​the​ ​issue. What​ ​factors​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​aggression? ● -​Factors​ ​like​ ​ ​arousal,​ ​alcohol​ ​,drugs,​ ​and​ ​temperature​ ​are​ ​also​ ​factor​ ​that​ ​can​ ​contribute to​ ​aggression.​ ​They​ ​can​ ​heighten​ ​aggression​ ​by​ ​increasing​ ​your​ ​mood. Watch​ ​the​ ​following​ ​video​ ​which​ ​presents​ ​Albert​ ​Bandura’s​ ​classic​ ​Bobo​ ​Doll​ ​experiment: What​ ​did​ ​Bandura​ ​conclude​ ​from​ ​this​ ​research​ ​about​ ​the​ ​origins​ ​of​ ​aggression? Aggression​ ​comes​ ​from​ ​background​ ​and​ ​environmental​ ​factors.​ ​The​ ​adults​ ​who​ ​treated the​ ​bobo​ ​doll​ ​kindely​ ​,​ ​made​ ​ ​the​ ​children​ ​to​ ​treat​ ​the​ ​bobo​ ​doll​ ​in​ ​the​ ​same​ ​manner.​ ​The​ ​adults who​ ​approached​ ​ ​the​ ​bobo​ ​doll​ ​with​ ​ ​anger,​ ​made​ ​the​ ​children​ ​to​ ​be​ ​violent​ ​towards​ ​these​ ​dolls. Why​ ​are​ ​attitudes​ ​or​ ​beliefs​ ​sometimes​ ​resistant​ ​to​ ​change?​ ​ ​ ​When​ ​people​ ​change​ ​their​ ​attitudes they​ ​may​ ​experience​ ​cognitive​ ​dissonance.​ ​ ​What​ ​is​ ​cognitive​ ​dissonance?​ ​ ​Can​ ​you​ ​provide​ ​an example​ ​of​ ​experiencing​ ​cognitive​ ​dissonance​ ​in​ ​your​ ​own​ ​life? ● Attitudes​ ​or​ ​beliefs​ ​are​ ​resistant​ ​to​ ​change​ ​because​ ​they​ ​re​ ​usual​ ​what​ ​comes​ ​naturally​ ​to them.​ ​Cognitive​ ​dissonance​ ​is​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​we​ ​alter​ ​o...
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Christopher Reinemann
"Before using Course Hero my grade was at 78%. By the end of the semester my grade was at 90%. I could not have done it without all the class material I found."
— Christopher R., University of Rhode Island '15, Course Hero Intern

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