Chapter Five- An Age of Empires- Rome and Han China, 753 B.C.E. - 330 C.E..docx

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Chapter Five An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China 753 B.C.E. - 330 C.E. 1. Rome’s Creation of a Mediterranean Empire a. A Republic of Farmers, 753-31 B.C.E. i. Origins 1. tradition holds that Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C.E., but the Palatine Hill was occupied around 1000 B.C.E. and swamps in the region were already dried by ca. 600 B.C.E. 2. traditional Roman histories holds that there were seven kings, the last of them being Tarquinius Superbus; he was usurped by Brutus the Liberator, who led the Council of Elders (later renamed the Senate), which led to the founding of the Roman republic (the word republic coming from the Latin res publica, meaning public possession) ii. The Republic 1. the Republic then formed, lasting from 507-31 B.C.E., and a form of representative democracy did take hold in the Assembly, in which members could be elected once every year--however, rich male citizens had more votes than poor ones 2. further, the real power of the Republic was with the Senate, where members sat for life; because of this, the Senate slowly transitioned from an advisory council to the true seat of government iii. Class, Conflicts, and Social Relations 1. Rome was divided into two classes, the patricians and the plebeians, the former being the wealthier, more influential class; because the plebeians felt their rights were being oppressed, the Conflict of the Orders arose in the 400s B.C.E.
2. during the Conflict of the Orders, plebeians would sometimes stop working or would even leave the city until Roman officials met their demands; as a result, the Twelve Tables of Rome were established around 450 B.C.E., the tribune system was created, and the Assembly gained veto power 3. in Roman families, the eldest male of the household (the paterfamilias) held complete authority over the other members; other males had a degree of authority called auctoritas, which was further authority over even more inferior members 4. in society, patrons would give their clients economic and legal aid; the clients, in turn, would give their patrons socio-political and militaristic support 5. women in Rome began with little rights, but they later gained a few, such as independence after the death of their father or husband; by the early 100s B.C.E., Roman poets began confessing their love for outspoken women iv. Religion 1. Roman peoples believed in the numina, which were forces which embodied objects or places; further, they worked to maintain the pax deorum, which was a covenant between the Roman gods and the state b. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean i. Causes and Instruments of Expansion 1. because consuls were elected annually, it is believed that they were pressed to expand as aggressively as possible within their one year term; the Romans, however, claim that their aggressive expansion was out of defense 2. the Roman army was a highly flexible and disciplined force, and participation was based on land ownership 3. Rome seized the Apennines from herders ca. 500 B.C.E., claimed protection (to later annex them) over Campania by 400 B.C.E., and by 290 B.C.E., wars with the Samnites led to a complete control of

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