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Chapter SeventeenThe Diversity of AmericanColonial Societies1530-1770 C.E.1. The Columbian Exchangea.Demographic Changesi.Early Epidemics1.because the people who had previously lived in the Americas had no immunity to European diseases, populations fell rapidly; fifty percent in Brazil died, while a further seventy-five percent in the Maya and Inca regions faced the same end2.by 1518 C.E., smallpox had arrived to the Caribbean, later killing fifty percent of Mexico and Central America; by the 1530s C.E., measles arrived, followed by diphtheria, typhus, influenza, and pulmonary plague, all to the same effect3.by the mid-1600s C.E., malaria and yellow fever had also arrived from Africa4.the native peoples’ ability to resist European settlement was hugely curtailedb.Transfer of Plants and Animalsi.Diffusion of Plants and Animals1.even while the native populations were nearly extermination, they did adapt Afro-Eurasian crops into their diets, such as wheat, olives, grapes, rice, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, sugar, fruit, onions, and radishes2.inversely, maize, potatoes, and manioc were all sent to the Old World, causing a population increased after 1700 C.E.; beans, squash, tomatoes,
sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilies, and chocolates were also incorporate into the European diet3.since European cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, rats, and rabbits faced little natural predators in the Americas, they grew in exponential amounts and soon threatened native crops4.however, the native peoples were also able to use them to their own advantage, especially regarding the agro-militaristic employed of horses2. Spanish America and Brazila.A Mixed Society Emerges, sti.Forging Colonial Society1.because Spain expressed colonial desire and they were the first to land inthe Americas, they soon had an empire stretching from Mexico to the Riode la Plata region, as well as covering the Caribbean2.Spanish colonies are based on a hierarchy of estates, uniform Catholicism, and patriarchal extended-family networks3.despite Spanish attempts to impose their complete culture on natives, many served by securing land rights through Spanish courts or marriages; their languages and customs were impact Spanish society, while their religious beliefs would endure under a Christian pretense4.as a third component, Africans enslaved and sent to Spanish colonies alsoincorporated their own traditions into the new cultureb.State and Churchi.Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Governments1.hoping to curtain the power of conquistadors, the Spanish were forced to innovate new methods of control, due to the distance of their colonies2.to do this, the Spanish established viceroyalties, or the right to govern over colonies; establishing the viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico, the Caribbean, the southwestern United States, and Central America) in 1535C.E., and the viceroyalty of Peru (all of Spanish South America) in 1540 C.E., the Spanish gave these positions to European-born men until
financial mismanagement forced the Spanish to begin selling them in the 1600s C.E.