Chapter Three- The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000-500 B.C.E..docx

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Chapter Three The Mediterranean and Middle East 2000-500 B.C.E. 1. The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700-1100 B.C.E. a. Western Asia i. Babylonia and Assyria 1. Babylonia ruled in the southern Mesopotamia from 1800-1700 B.C.E. under Hammurabi’s dynasty, while fell to the Kassites from the Zagros mountains in 1460 B.C.E. and which led to the Kassites controlling Babylon until 1210 B.C.E. 2. the Old Assyrian kingdom formed based on extensive trade in 2000 B.C.E. in the northern Mesopotamia, while the New Assyrian kingdom integrated conquest into foreign relations around 1400 B.C.E. ii. The Hittites of Anatolia 1. other peoples lived in the Middle East, like the Elam of southwestern Iran and the Mitanni of the far north; the Hittites arose to control Anatolia from Hattusha, near present-day Ankara in Turkey, from 1700- 1200 B.C.E. 2. the Hittites controlled Anatolian commerce, used chariots in warfare, and managed to develop iron, the method for which they kept secret until their fall in 1200 B.C.E. iii. The Spread of Mesopotamian Culture 1. the political and cultural concepts of Mesopotamia began to spread as Akkadian became the lingua franca, the Elamites and Hittites adapted
cuneiform, and the city of Ugarit, on the Syrian coast, created the first alphabet of only consonants with cuneiform 2. new states began to exert pressure of the core of Mesopotamia, and by 2000 B.C.E. larger, further-reaching powers had come to replace the small, city-state-like structures of Mesopotamia b. New Kingdom Egypt i. The Hyksos 1. Egypt began to decline around 1700 B.C.E. after four hundred years of prosperity, allowing the Hyksos (literally, Princes of Foreign Lands) to conquer Egypt with chariots and the composite bow, possibly from Syria-Palestine; though the Hyksos adopted Egyptian culture, they were considered foreigners for the duration of their rule ii. New Kingdom Expansion 1. Kamose and Ahmose pushed out the Hyksos and restored the New Kingdom from Thebes, which lasted from 1532-1070 B.C.E. 2. the New Kingdom expanded into Syria-Palestine and Nubia, treating the former with cooperation while the latter with brutality; Egypt gained control of timber, gold, and copper from these conquests as a result of tribute and taxes, while diplomacy and commerce also spread, leading to the introduction of the potter’s wheel and weaver’s loom to Egypt iii. Unconventional Rulers 1. Hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 B.C.E.) took power on her husband’s death and assumed masculine pronouns while wearing a beard; she sent an expedition to Punt in 1470 B.C.E. which returned with myrrh, ebony, ivory, cosmetics, live monkeys, and panther skins, leading to her celebration at Deir el-Bahri--however, after her death, Hatshepsut’s visage was defaced 2. Akhenaten (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.), crowned as Amenhotep IV, moved his capital to Amarna, instated Aten as the chief deity, closed all temples, and challenged the power of Amon; he may have done this because he
was monotheistic, but it was probably a political move to remove the power of his priests and assert his own divinity--however, his successor

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