Chapter Eighteen- The Atlantic System and Africa, 1550-1800 C.E..docx

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Chapter EighteenThe Atlantic System and Africa1550-1800 C.E.1. Plantations in the West Indiesa.Colonization Before 1650 C.E.i.The Tobacco Era1.though colonized for sugarcane shortly after 1500 C.E., the colonies soonfell into neglect until northern colonies with the French and English began to reinvest in them with tobacco in the 1620s-1630s C.E.2.tobacco quickly became popular in Europe; even though James I condemned it as destructive, seven thousand shops in and around Londonsold it by 1614 C.E.3.because early Caribbean tobacco colonies were plagued by issues such ashurricanes, native and Spanish attacks, disease, and lack of labor, the English and French governments allowed charter companies to control the land with monopolies in exchange for annual fees; these companies then employed indentured servitude to increase the population of the Caribbean islands, raising steady from the 1630s-1640s C.E., and their productivity4.however, competition with Virginia’s tobacco so grew and the Caribbean moved from to tobacco to sugar and from indentured servants to slavesii.The Portuguese and the Dutch and Sugar1.the Portuguese imported their plantation formats from western African islands to Brazil; by 1600 C.E., Brazil was the largest producer of sugar in the Atlantic, made possible in part because of Dutch investment, merchants, and processing
2.when the Dutch gained independence from Spain, and since Portugal wasin a personal union with them, they formed the Dutch West India Company in 1621 C.E. to seize control of Portuguese sugar; by 1635 C.E., they controlled much of Brazil’s sugar region, and they had also taken Elmina (in 1638 C.E.) and Luanda (in 1641 C.E.) on the West African coast, though the Portuguese did retake Luanda soon after3.when the Portuguese absolved their personal union with Spain in 1640 C.E., they immediately became focusing in on reconquering Brazil; by 1654 C.E., all the Dutch in Brazil had been expelled, transferring their knowledge instead to the Caribbeanb.Sugar and Slavesi.The Caribbean Arises, st1.with the influx of Dutch ideas, the French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique endured, while Barbados eventually became the most populous of English colonies, growing majorly sugar by the 1680s C.E.ii.The Slave Trade1.the necessity of slaves grew in an essentially exponential manner of this time period, though slaves would now also go to English, French, and Dutch colonies from Africa as welliii.Indentured Servants1.initially short on funds, Caribbean plantations hired indentured servants for half the cost of a slave; however, land prices later rose and indenturedservants went to the English colonies, while Caribbean plantations turnedto African slaves2.though rising sugar prices and the longer usage of slaves benefitted plantation owners, the influx of slaves was in constant demand from Africa, and the price rose steadily throughout the 1700s C.E.

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