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Chapter FourGreece and Iran1000-30 B.C.E.1. Ancient Iran, 1000-500 B.C.E.a.Geography and Resourcesi.Terrain1.the terrain of Iran is comprised of mountains to the exterior andbasins and deserts to the interior; the surrounding region is made up of the Persian Gulf to the southwest, the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains to the north, and the Afghan mountains and Baluchistan desert to the east2.there was an increased population to the north and east3.copper, tin, iron, gold, and silver were all available and exploited to some extent; wood, textiles, and carpets were all traded food4.around 1000 B.C.E., underground irrigation became possible and allowed for more extensive farming, but salinization was a problemb.The Rise of the Persian Empirei.Iranians, Medes, and Persians1.the term “Iranian” identifies several cultural groups which arose in western and central Asia2.of these peoples, the Mada (known in the West as the Medes) were the first to expand3.after escaping the influence of Mesopotamia and Urartu, the Mada took control of northern Assyria and Anatolia, and then the Persian
Gulf, by the 600s B.C.E. (notably, the success of their conquests mayhave been exaggerated)4.the Parsa (known in the West as the Persian) later came to overthrow the Mada through the Achaemenids, when Kurush, or Cyrus, married a Mada princess and overthrew the king in 550 B.C.E.5.Kurush maintained a court of both Mada and Parsa members, though its significance was lost on Greek historians, whom were unable to distinguish the two6.society was dominated by a patriarchal system which left full control with the man7.society was further divided into three groups, the warriors, who fought, held land, and ruled; the priests, called magush, who oversawsacrifices; and the peasants, who maintained agricultureii.Early Rulers and Conquests1.Kurush (r. 550-530 B.C.E.) conquered Anatolia in 546 B.C.E. and Neo-Babylon in 539 B.C.E.; notably, he did grant Babylon cultural autonomy within his empire2.Kambujiya (r. 530-522 B.C.E.), or Cambyses, conquered Egypt harshly, but later replicated the same cultural autonomy which Kurush had granted the Babylonians3.Darayavaush (r. 522-486 B.C.E.), or Darius, seized the throne after Kambujiya’s death as a distant relative4.under his rule, Mada officials decreased in importance, from the Danube in Europe to the Indus in India was conquered, the Scythian people were forced further north to the Black Sea, Greece was threatened with a string of forts in Thrace (northern Greece), the Red Sea was linked to the Nile, and from the Indus Delta to the Red Sea was exploredc.Imperial Organizationi.Darius’s Reorganization of the Empire1.Darayavaush reorganized the empire under an administrative system of governors known as satraps, of which there were twenty; the further a satrapy was from the capital, the more autonomy they held
2.Darayavaush assigned a quota of precious metals to be collected in each satrapy, which were to be given to the central government;