Chapter Nineteen- Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750 C.E..docx

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Chapter Nineteen Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean 1500-1750 C.E. 1. The Ottoman Empire, to 1750 C.E. a. Expansion and Frontiers i. Reasons for Ottoman Growth, st 1. though a small state around 1300 C.E., the cleverness of its founder, Osman, and his descendants, control of the Dardanelles strait between Europe and Asia, and tradition Turkish cavalry equipped with gunpowder, allowed the Ottoman Empire to grow ii. The Battle of Kosovo 1. the Ottomans first expanded into their Christian foemen, defeating a Serbian kingdom around 1389 C.E. at the Battle of Kosovo, gaining much of southeastern Europe and Anatolia by 1402 C.E., and by taking Constantinople--remained Istanbul--in 1453 C.E. under Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror iii. Suleiman the Magnificent 1. Selim I the Grim conquered Egypt and Syria in 1516 and 1517 C.E.; his son, Suleiman the Magnificent (or the Lawgiver, r. 1520-1566 C.E.) saw further expansion, with the conquest of Belgrade in 1521 C.E., of Rhodes from the Knights Hospitaller (the Knights of the Hospital of St. John) in 1522 C.E., and also of Vienna in 1529 C.E., though impending winter forced a retreat 2. beginning with Suleiman, the Ottomans also sought to seize control of the Mediterranean, and began a war with Venice that lasted in rounds
from 1453-1502 C.E.; though Venice maintained control of their islands, they were forced to pay tribute to the Ottomans iv. The Portuguese Threat 1. when emissaries from southern India and Sumatra requested Ottoman aid against the Portuguese in the early 1500s C.E., the Ottomans vigorously protected nearby ports like Aden, but failed to stop Portuguese expansion elsewhere 2. because of their vast militaristic strength in comparison to the Portuguese sea empire--and because eastern goods still reached Ottoman trade--the Ottomans did not feel compelled to truly curve Portuguese involvement, though a small navy was sent to Indonesia b. Central Institutions i. The Janissary Corps 1. the yeni cheri, called Janissaries in English, were Christian prisoners of war whom were captured by the Ottomans and compelled to serve in the army as slaves; unaccustomed to mounted warfare, they readily adopted the idea of fighting on foot with firearms while mounted archers, unable to use effectively use heavy firearms while riding, continued to use bows ii. Child Levy 1. by the early 1400s C.E., a new system, called devshirme, arose in which young Christian males and sometimes other were taken from their villages to be inducted into Turkish families to learn the language; from there, they would be sent to Istanbul, where they educated in Islam, warfare, and--for the most talented--administration; while most would become yeni cheri, those most talented would often gain military command or high position in government 2. Turkish cavalry, by contrast, held land in rural Anatolia and the Balkans, where taxes gained would provide for the funding of their summer campaigns with the sultan iii. Naval Warfare
1. a galley-based navy of Greek, Turkish, Algerian, and Tunisian sailors, usually led by an admiral from northern African ports, expanded slowly into the Mediterranean, though a conquest of Malta failed in 1565 C.E.

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