100%(2)2 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 15 pages.
Chapter OneFrom the Origins of Agricultureto the First River-ValleyCivilizations1. On Civilization, sta.Defining Civilizations, sti.Eight Features of a Civilization, st1.eight features are used to determine a civilization, those being the use of cities as administrative centers, politics and governance based on territory, job specialization amongst the majority of the population, statusbased on wealth, buildings which serve as monuments and other public works, a system of permanent records, long-distance trade, and major advances in sciences and other humanities2. Before Civilizationa.Signs of Culture, sti.Discoveries, st1.discoveries of early human culture were found in Spain, Africa, Australia, and specifically Lascaux, in southern France, in 1940 C.E.ii.Culture Develops, st1.material things, such as dwellings, arts, tools, and crafts arose; nonmaterial things such as values, beliefs, and languages also developedb.Food Gathering and Stone Toolsi.The Diet of Early Humans, st1.vegetables including fruits, berries, wild seeds, and roots, were eaten on a daily basis after having been collected by skins, woven leaves, and sticks, while meat was eaten at feastsii.Cooking, Traveling, and Shelter
1.food was easier to cook after having been digested, though the first fires were probably accidental; deliberate fires arose around one-a-half-million years ago, and potters arose in East Asia around 10500 B.C.E.2.women were usually responsible for gathering and cooking, while men were responsible for hunting3.small, highly-mobile bands were the usual structure as herds and seasonal flora dictated where bands went; anything too large would usually starve, while anything too small lacked protection4.housing was negligible; though poor shelters were sometimes created, most shelter was natural--some fishing villages did arise with solid structures, howeveriii.Clothing and Lifestyle1.clothing was usually made from animal skin, though woven fabrics arouse around 68000 B.C.E.2.only three-to-five hours of work was necessary each day, so art, tools, and social life also developed, though much of day-to-day life was relative to weather patternsiv.Non-stone Technologies, Art, and Religion1.humans were forced to understand and experiment with their environment, leading to the development of clothing, twine, building materials, dyes, tools, medicines, and basic linguistics2.artwork also increased, usually of animals, flora, and other humans, possibly for religious purposes, efforts at counting and writing, time keeping, and/or education3.deliberate burials arose around 98000 B.C.E., in which leaders were buried with stone implements, food, clothing, and red-ochre powder, suggesting a belief in an afterlifec.The Agricultural Revolutionsi.The Rise of Agriculture in the Agricultural Revolutions, st1.flora and fauna were domesticated around 9800 B.C.E., which led to population growth and the invent of new tools; however, this happened steadily, and some groups remained hunter-gatherers.