Chapter One- From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations.docx

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 15 pages.

Chapter One From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations 1. On Civilization, st a. Defining Civilizations, st i. Eight Features of a Civilization, st 1. eight features are used to determine a civilization, those being the use of cities as administrative centers, politics and governance based on territory, job specialization amongst the majority of the population, status based on wealth, buildings which serve as monuments and other public works, a system of permanent records, long-distance trade, and major advances in sciences and other humanities 2. Before Civilization a. Signs of Culture, st i. Discoveries, st 1. discoveries of early human culture were found in Spain, Africa, Australia, and specifically Lascaux, in southern France, in 1940 C.E. ii. Culture Develops, st 1. material things, such as dwellings, arts, tools, and crafts arose; nonmaterial things such as values, beliefs, and languages also developed b. Food Gathering and Stone Tools i. The Diet of Early Humans, st 1. vegetables including fruits, berries, wild seeds, and roots, were eaten on a daily basis after having been collected by skins, woven leaves, and sticks, while meat was eaten at feasts ii. Cooking, Traveling, and Shelter
1. food was easier to cook after having been digested, though the first fires were probably accidental; deliberate fires arose around one-a-half- million years ago, and potters arose in East Asia around 10500 B.C.E. 2. women were usually responsible for gathering and cooking, while men were responsible for hunting 3. small, highly-mobile bands were the usual structure as herds and seasonal flora dictated where bands went; anything too large would usually starve, while anything too small lacked protection 4. housing was negligible; though poor shelters were sometimes created, most shelter was natural--some fishing villages did arise with solid structures, however iii. Clothing and Lifestyle 1. clothing was usually made from animal skin, though woven fabrics arouse around 68000 B.C.E. 2. only three-to-five hours of work was necessary each day, so art, tools, and social life also developed, though much of day-to-day life was relative to weather patterns iv. Non-stone Technologies, Art, and Religion 1. humans were forced to understand and experiment with their environment, leading to the development of clothing, twine, building materials, dyes, tools, medicines, and basic linguistics 2. artwork also increased, usually of animals, flora, and other humans, possibly for religious purposes, efforts at counting and writing, time keeping, and/or education 3. deliberate burials arose around 98000 B.C.E., in which leaders were buried with stone implements, food, clothing, and red-ochre powder, suggesting a belief in an afterlife c. The Agricultural Revolutions i. The Rise of Agriculture in the Agricultural Revolutions, st 1. flora and fauna were domesticated around 9800 B.C.E., which led to population growth and the invent of new tools; however, this happened steadily, and some groups remained hunter-gatherers.
ii. A Gradual Process 1.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture