Final Paper -- Congo.docx - Dhanie 1 Sheevani Dhanie...

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Dhanie 1 Sheevani Dhanie Professor Alvin Quackenbush INR 2002 26 April 2015 Conflict Minerals, Slavery, and Violence in the Congo Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is a country located in Central Africa. It has a 25- mile (40-km) coastline on the Atlantic Ocean. Democratic Republic of Congo is the second This region was first settled about 80,000 years ago. In the 7 th century AD, Bantu migration arrived from Nigeria. When King Leopold II founded the “Congo Free State”, Belgian colonization began. This was wholly run by King Leopold. “Belgian Congo” was established when reports of the widespread of murder and torture in the rubber plantations was revealed; Congo was then seized from Leopold. By this time, numerous Christian organizations wanted to westernize the Congolese people. In 1960, Congo was granted independence from Belgium. However, since the tribal leaders had more power than the central government, Congo became unstable. With the aid of largest country on the continent, following Algeria. With its capital being Kinshasa, it serves as the country’s official administrative, economic and cultural center.
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the Soviet Union as part of the Cold War, Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba tried to restore order. In 1965, the United States supported a coup which was led by Colonel Joseph Mobutu Sese Seko. From 1971 to 1997, Congo officially became the Republic of Zaire. This was given by Dhanie 2 General Mobutu Sese Seko whom thought he was giving the Democratic Republic of Congo a more authentic African name; “Zaire” meaning “Great River”. Mobutu also thought he could Africanize the country even more by demanding the citizens to change their Western names to traditional African names. October 1996 to May 1997 became known as the First Congo War. This was a foreign invasion of Zaire which was led by Rwanda. In this war, decades-long dictator, Mobutu Sese Seko was replaced by Laurent-Desire Kabila. The main event which precipitated the war was the genocide in Rwanda – Rwandan Genocide. From April to July 1994, members of the Hutu in Rwanda murdered as many as 800,000 people – mostly of the Tutsi minority in the capital of Kigali, the genocide spread rapidly and brutally. This created 2 million refugees (mainly Hutus) from Rwanda which fled and settled in eastern Zaire. From these camps, they attacked the Rwandan Tutsi as well as the Banyamulenge and Banyarwanda. During the first half of 1996, there were nearly 600 deaths. In the First Congo War, Mobutu was overthrown. Following the overthrow of Mobutu in 1997, the name “Democratic of Congo” was reinstated by Laurent- Desire Kabila. Kabila was also a disappointment, this then led to the Second Congo War – many African nations took part in this. In 2001, Kabila was assassinated by his bodyguard and his son, Joseph, succeeded him and was later elected president by the Congolese government in 2006.
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